Wednesday, December 25, 2019
My Journey through Literacy I remember being read to ever since I was young in Spanish by my mother before entering grade school. Despite my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s language barrier, she never hesitated to take my siblings and I to the Houston public library in downtown twice a week. I remember catching more than two buses to our destination. Once inside the library, I would run towards the aisle that had collections of Disney books. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I knew how to read during that time, therefore, I would grab the books just to look at the pictures, colors, and characters that were portrayed as evil and nice. I also believe I would pretend to read and retell a story that did not match the book. All I could do consisted of identifying the letter of theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When the poet walked into our class to facilitate this life changing event, I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help staring at how tall she was, bubbly, and comfortable she made me feel. Before we started writing our pieces, Mrs. Charlotte Kennedy met wit h us one by one and empathized with our ideas. She encouraged us to put our thoughts, words, and energy into poetry, stories, artwork, and acting. Despite my negative view towards reading and writing I decided to take on the challenge because for the first time it was something I wanted to do. Formulating my ideas was easy, putting them into paper was the hard task for me and time consuming. Through this event I discovered within myself the capacity of formulating sentences and understanding what is being asked to create. This piece of writing gave me the strength to speak up and ask for help when needed. I also understood that writing and reading are powerful skills that would allow me to create my anthology. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for the constant support from my parents, teachers, and mentors my level of reading and writing would of have never progressed, knowing that I could of have been an illiterate person. Reading is a skill that is developed in order to verbally communicate with one another, while writing consist of putting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts into paper. When I entered high-school, reading and writing was implemented in every subject. Math, Science, Reading, and even extracurricular activities required these powerfulShow MoreRelatedFormal English Essay1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Many writers share their experiences about literacy and language. The writer Helen Keller wrote The Day Language Came into My Life, an essay where she tells the reader her experience with how she learned how to speak, read and write even though she is blind and deaf. Amy Tan wrote Mother Tongue, an essay where she talks about the trouble of speaking English as an immigrant in a new country. Frederick Douglass wrote Learning to Read and Write, an essay where he talks about becoming literate duringRead MoreFrederick Douglass And Malcolm X Essay1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslearning to read and write. Literacy is what allows us to gain knowledge through learning. This topic is important because based on a study conducted by the U.S Department of Education and the National Institution of Literacy, 32 million adults in the U.S are still unable to read and write and African Americans are expected to make up nearly half of that amount. In both Fredrick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Learning to Re adÃ¢â¬ and Malcolm XÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Homemade Education,Ã¢â¬ common themes regarding literacy and freedom are identifiedRead MoreReflection Of College Writing1637 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOver the course of this past semester, my ability to write has improved tremendously. Prior to undertaking this course, my expertise in writing was not as fine-tuned as it should have been. I had never previously been enrolled in a class specifically tailored to writing-- which was quite clear. Upon reading my past works, it becomes apparent that my writing style consisted of fluff, small words, and inconsistently structured sentences. These problems have, for the most part, been remedied with theRead MoreMy Literacy Experience1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages My literacy experience What does it mean knowing how to read and write. I take literacy skill very seriosly that will help me in the future. I know such skills dont come easy, it requires hard work, sleepless night. The reason why I go to school is to make mistakes, correct them and not to repeat them again. I always improve my skills through curiosity to learn something new, not being able to read and write would keep me in a darkness without seeing beautiful things that surround me. I haveRead MoreReflection Of College Level Writing836 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In the past years of my school journey from middle school now to high-school, I have struggled with writing papers. I was not an excellent writer or rather the best writer. I had trouble with expressing my main idea of my paper whenever I was given a topic. Even though my teachers would tell me to brainstorm before I started writing, I still somehow struggled because I was better at letting ideas flow through my head as I write. I was not an expert at developing sentence structure or details asRead MoreLiteracy And Reading820 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiteracy is not only the ability to read and write, but a form of expression that can be used when the spoken word is not enough. Throughout my life, I have always had a passion for literacy, and reading and writing has always been a large part of who I am as a person. When I was younger, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to go a day without seeing a book in my hand of some sort. Literacy has always been a sort of escape for me. Any time that I w as having issues I knew I could always turn to a book to take meRead MoreTaking English 1010 Was A Great Experience?924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswas a great experience because it prepares students on becoming better writers through college life. Even though this is my second year in college I was unable to take English 1010 the first year, but taking this class truly show me what college professors are looking for when we are ask to write a successful paper. College professors expect every student to be able to evaluate each topic and be descriptive in their essay. I have written more in the past year in this course than I probably wrote throughoutRead MoreLiteracy Is The Common Understanding Of Literacy988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiteracy can come in almost any category or way you can think of. When most people think of being literate they think of just having the ability to read and write, but being literate can be extended out to a much broader meaning. Being literate can also be defined as being knowledgeable or experienced in any particular area. Most people have a moment they remember as becoming more advanced literately in certain subjects. This remains true for the common understanding of literacy, whether it be aRead MoreThe Importance Of Writing1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmake them better are also a large part in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to becoming who they are today. Subjects such as language arts are especially helpful when doing this and help bring out the voices of writers and readers, young and old. For me, the activities and decisions I have made up to this point, including reading and writing, have made me the person that I am today. Reflecting on this and my personality, strengths, and weaknesses have also contributed to my growth over the years and have pushed me towardsRead MoreMy Literacy History And How It Has Been Developed Throughout Portions Of My Life915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages As I think what literacy means to me, the most important thought that comes to mind is my understanding of it: the ability to read and write, I feel that without the ability to read and write, mankind is unable to properly function because there is no foundation for adequate communication. So literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Everyone has some
Posted by j at 7:16 AM
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested on April 12, 1963, in Birmingham, for having a protest without a proper permit. On the exact day King was arrested, eight clergymen from Alabama wrote a letter called Ã¢â¬Å"A Call for Unity.Ã¢â¬ The letter called for termination of civil activities and demonstrations and designated King an Ã¢â¬Å"outsiderÃ¢â¬ and saying that outsiders were the problems in Birmingham and not the blacks that are from there. On April 16 King wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ , which was his responds to his fellow clergymen. He wrote the letter as a means to convince the clergymen and the white moderate that the nonviolent demonstrations that had got him arrested, were a necessity and to enlighten them on why the segregation laws in theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦King articulates that his nonviolent protest look Ã¢â¬Å"to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to con front the issue.Ã¢â¬ King is agreeing with the clergymen but show that the community declines to listen and that nonviolent protest make a massive impact, the clergymen can see how his actions are only option. The appeal to pathos is another way King persuaded the clergymen, by making them feel sympathy. In the first paragraph King writes about how he rarely answers criticism because he gets to many and he is far too busy, but states that since they are Ã¢â¬Å"men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statements in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.Ã¢â¬ King is complimenting the clergymen in order to make them feel significant and to set a friendly bond between them. He then goes on to say he will make reasonable terms making them feel sympathy for him taking his time to respond to the statements they made. By saying this in the first paragraph, King set a friendly atmosphere between him and the clerg ymen. Now instead of viewing him as an outsider with bad intentions, they see him as more of a friend and is more open to listening to what he has to say throughout the rest of the letter. King us the appeal to ethos to let the clergymen know that he is not an Ã¢â¬Å"outsiderÃ¢â¬ who is coming in stirring up trouble. The clergymen do notShow MoreRelatedMartin Luther King Jr., Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ 3011 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pages[Subject] [Date] Martin Luther king Jr., Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from Birmingham JailÃ¢â¬ Outline 1. Introduction i) Argument about Ã¢â¬Å"Justice and injusticeÃ¢â¬ ii) Religious appeals in KingÃ¢â¬â¢s latter iii) Paragraph fourteen of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s latter 2. Discussion 3. Conclusion Introduction The pressure of racial segregation was reaching a boiling point in 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama. After being arrested for his part in the Birmingham Campaign, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote an open letterRead MoreLetter to Birmingham Jail3615 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr. King wrote the letter from the city jail in Birmingham, Alabama, where he was confined after being arrested for his part in the Birmingham campaign, a planned non-violent protest conducted by the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights and Kings Southern Christian Leadership Conference against racial segregation by Birminghams city government and downtownRead MoreResearch on Martin Luther King Jr And The Letter from the Birmingham Jail3397 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesResearch on Martin Luther King Jr And The Letter from the Birmingham Jail To me, Martin Luther King, Jr. is not an unfamiliar name. His famous speech I have a dream is partly selected as our English text in China. Although I know he is well known for the strong and affective words, Letter from Birmingham Jail still gave me a very deep impression. It is perfectly organized in a logical and thoughtful arrangement. On the other hand, the words are strong and full of real, impressive emotion. Read More Ploitical, And Social Effents That Shaped The 60s Generation3235 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesamongst this chaos, there was a generation of youths looking to set their own standard - to fight against the establishment, which was oppressing them, and leave their mark on history. These kids were known as the hippies. There were many stereotypes concerning hippies; they were thought of as being pot smoking, freeloading vagabonds, who were trying to save the world. As this small pocket of teenage rebellion rose out of the suburbs, inner cities, and countrysideÃ¢â¬â¢s, there was a general feeling thatRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesTwentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of Environmental
Posted by j at 3:06 AM
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question: Describe about the Labour Turnover and Business Sustainability? Answer: Sustainable plan for the business Sustainable plan for the business is quite important, as it helps the management in achieving the set target or objectives. High labour turnover is one of the concerns for the company. The management need to take corrective steps through which the labour turnover can be reduced. In order to retain the staffs, it is essential for retaining the employees. For this, the staffs needs to be motivated and encouraged to be performed at the workplace. There are different factors that causes high labour turnover, which can affect the production plan for the company. Thus, the management need to adopt and implement effective strategy that would help in minimising the turnover. Sustainable plans prepared by the management are usually on the long term basis and for this, it is essential to analyse the available resources in the right manner. Labour force forms an important part in executing the tasks that has been determined by the management. The challenge that exists at the workplace related t o the labour force is handled differently by various companies. In order to handle the issue in the right manner, it is essential to analyse the severity of the issue and draft the best policy through which the challenges can be overpowered (Colakoglu, 2009). Labour turnover and business sustainability High percentage of workforce turnover has a significant impact on the sustainable growth plan of the company. Smaller and controllable percentage of turnover is considered to be part of the business, and usually doesnt have a major impact on the business performance. Increase in the percentage of turnover increases the costs of operations. Management of the company has to incur expenses for recruiting and training new staffs for carrying out the operational activities at the workplace. Higher percentage of turnover of workforce impacts the sustainable plan and increases the challenges that are involved with the operational activities. As a part of the sustainable plan, the company work towards retaining the staffs and improve the production activities. The reason for the increase for the workforce turnover has to be analysed. This would help the management to draft effective policies through which the changes for retaining the staffs. Some of the reasons that causes high turnover is increase in the expectations of the staffs, better pay and work security. Constant turnover affects the performance of the company and delays the execution of the projects, which is important for the business. The time and efforts that needs to be spent for training the staffs is quite expensive. Thus, effective strategies need to be taken for retaining the staffs to carry the operational activities. Plans are implemented to achieve the objectives that have been drafted by the company. Thus, it is necessary to introduce strategies that would encourage the staffs to perform better (Dewettinck, and Buyens, 2006). PROCESS MAP 1 Evaluation of 4 evidences based on the professional business advisors The professional advisor framework has been defined and implemented for the successful performance of the company. In this case, the strategies need to be implemented for achieving the objectives of the company. Professional advisor frameworks can be used for the below mentioned factors Implementing changes in the production activities. Analyse the production process and monitor the stages. Staff performance evaluation Ethical analysis for the management (Dewettinck, and Buyens, 2006) The strategies are analysed, so as to implement the changes that would help in the business development. Labor and strategic management process, would help the company to implement the accurate changes that would help in developing the business. One of the familiar factors for the professional frameworks is associated with the staff performance evaluation. Through this process, the performance of the company is evaluated. The expected changes to retain the staffs can be planned and implemented by the management to increase the production process. The unfamiliar issue is associated with the analysis of the production activities and the evaluating the stages involved with the same. Production process changes and depends upon the challenges that are involved with the production activities. Critical analysis of 4 evidences Sustainable plans for the business is important, as this helps in improving the production activities. The factors associated with the high labour turnover have to be analysed, as this would help the management in drafting the best policy that would motivate the staffs. Laws and rules have been imposed to help the management and the staffs to adopt and implement the best steps through which the changes required for retaining the staffs for the company can be introduced (Sherwood, 2006). Plans for implementing the changes that are associated with improving the production activities Analyse the changes and its impact on the labour market and sustainable plan. Improving the production process Implement plans through which the changes can be introduced. Familiar issue is associated with the strategies adopted for implementing the changes Unfamiliar issues are related to identifying the areas where the changes needs to be implemented for improving the changes. Process Map 2 Summary learning In the case study, the performance of the staffs has been discussed. Performance of the team members have been impacted due to stress and less motivational factors. This has in fact affected the productivity for the company. Despite of taking the corrective steps, the team leader hasnt been able to encourage the staffs. Apart from the performance, the differences between different members of the group have been badly affected. This has impacted the work ability of the staffs or the team members. In order to solve this issue, the team leader needs to analyse the cause of the problem. At the time of analysing the problem, the leader needs to interact with the members and understand the factors that affect their performance. Based on the collected information, corrective steps can be implemented for improving the performance of the company. Better methods for relieving stress level of the staffs have to be sorted out through counselling. Through this method, the leader can interact with the employees or the team members. This would help in analysing the severity of the issue and implement corrective steps to introduce changes. For motivating the staffs, it is essential to improve the work culture. Through this process, the members can be provided with enough resources for improving the performance (Grant, 2008). Literature on sustainable plan The team members of the company can be encouraged to improve upon the performance. Team members can be encouraged to work better by handling the issues that is faced by the team. This would help in increasing the performance (Shalley Ch, Gilson L, and Blum T, 2009). Motivation can be external or an internal factor. In the internal factor the staffs are highly motivated and work towards improving the performance. External factors are associated with the rewards, promotion, and others. Through the model, the management can introduce effective steps that would help the staffs in improving the performance. The work culture needs to be improved as this will help in encouraging the staffs in improving the performance. Factors that could affect the performance of the members needs to be analysed and corrective measures can be introduced by the management. This has to be done after planning the changes that needs to be implemented by the company. The team leader needs to adopt and implement an effective and reliable communication process. Interaction and effective communication is necessary for handling different challenges between the members of the team. Team bonding needs to be increased as this will improve the production process for the company (Kochar, 2008). References Colakoglu S, 2009. Successful pursuit of a boundaryless career: career competencies perspective // Academy of Management Proceedings. P. 1-6. Dewettinck K, and Buyens D, 2006. Linking behavioral control to employee outcomes: testing two explanations using motivation theories // Academy of Management Proceedings. P. 16. Grant A, 2008. Does Intrinsic Motivation Fuel the Prosocial Fire Motivational Synergy in Predicting Persistence, Performance, and Productivity // Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 93, Issue 1. P. 4858. Kochar B, 2008. Job Satisfaction Among Academic // ICFAI Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 7. Issue 4. P. 5560 Ros A, 2003. Do ESOPS motivate employees? Worker effort, monitoring and participation in employee-owned stock ownership plans // Advances in the Economic Analysis of Participatory Labor-Managed Firms. Vol. 7. P. 83-103. Shalley Ch, Gilson L, and Blum T, 2009. Interactive effects of growth need strength, work context, and job complexity on selfreported creative performance. // By: Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 52. Issue 3. P. 489505 Sherwood B, 2006. How to win over your employees and motivate them to perform // Metal Finishing. Vol. 104, Issue 3. P. 5253.
Posted by j at 11:49 PM
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Jesus Is Life Jesus' Life ?Do you see Him, do you see Him?!? the little boy whispered, while tugging on his father's robe. ?Shh, Simon. Patience. He will be here soon. Can you hear the crowd getting louder John asked his son. He was trying to appear calm, but his beating heart and sweating palms gave him away. He and his son were in a crowd of hundreds waiting to see Jesus of Nazareth. People were claiming that Jesus was the Messiah they had been waiting for. John was skeptical, so he thought he would go see for himself. Jesus Christ was born in Bethlehem, the city of David. While this might seem ordinary to some, the circumstances leading up to were not. Mary was betrothed to marry Joseph, but before they had slept together, she found out she was pregnant. Joseph was ready to call it off quietly, when an angel of the Lord came to him saying, ? Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home as your wife, because what is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save His people from their sins.? (Matt. 1:20,21) Joseph then took Mary home as his wife, and they did not lay together until Jesus was born. This proves to us Jesus was born of God, not of man. He was God's son, blameless, pure, and holy. (Mt.1:18-24) Every year Jesus and His parents would travel to Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. The year when Jesus was twelve, they went as usual; however, after the Feast days. They found Him in the Temple teaching the teachers. (Luke 2:41-50) ?When His parents saw Him, they were astonished. His mother said to Him, ?Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously been searching for you.' ?Why were you searching for me?' Jesus asked. ?Didn't you know I had to be in my Father's house' (Luke 2:48,49) He then left with His parents back to Nazareth ?and was obedient to them.? (Luke 2:51b) This shows Jesus' love for His Heavenly Father, as well as His respect and obedience to His earthly parents. John the Baptist, Jesus' cousin, had been ?preaching in the desert of Judea and saying, ?Repent, for the kingdom of Heaven is near'.? (Matt 3:1b,2) He was preaching the way for Jesus and fulfilling Isaiah's prophesy, ?A voice of one calling: ?In the desert prepare the way for the Lord; make straight in the wilderness a highway for our Lord'.? (Isa. 40:3) People from all over Jerusalem were coming to be baptized by John the Baptist. Though he baptized them, he made sure all his actions pointed toward Jesus. (Matt. 3:1-12) ? I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.? (Matt. 3:11) While John was at the Jordan River baptizing, Jesus came and asked John to baptize him. ?But John tried to deter him, saying, ?I need to be baptized by you, and do you come to me?' Jesus replied, ?Let is be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.' Th en John consented.? (Matt 3:14,15) After Jesus came up from the water ? A voice from heaven said, ?this is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased'.? (Matt 3:17) Jesus was setting an example for us to follow. Baptism represents our death to sin, and our new life in Christ. After his baptism, ?Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil.? (Matt. 4:1) Jesus was in the desert for forty days and nights,0 and Satan tempted him the entire time. Jesus used scripture to fight Satan, and Jesus came out the victor of the battle.(Matt. 4:1-11) Soon after his temptation, Jesus heard that John the Baptist had been put into prison, he then left Nazareth and went back up to Galilee. (Matt. 4:12-17) There he began to preach ?repent for the
Posted by j at 11:30 AM
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Effects of Taxes essays Taxes are needed in order to securely administer and fund different governmental organizations, as well as construction and other universal infrastructure services. Many proponents of taxes suggest that taxation is way too extreme within the present day economic trends that exist within America. Taxes do fund many programs and construction of certain projects within America, but also effect certain aspects of America's economy. Taxes do present positive as well as negative characteristics within an economic system. Increased taxes do have a direct effect toward consumers, businesses, and the overall economy. Consumers are exposed to extreme effects of taxes, and may even be effected more than any other group within the economy. Increasing prices on their products due to the increased taxes makes up most of the potential profits for businesses. The consumers therefore lose out because of the increased prices, and must decide on another budgetary analysis. For example, a consumer who is introduced to new taxes may decide to stop purchasing a certain product. A consumer may choose to not purchase a good that my normally go along with another good. This good is a complimentary good and may not be bought because of increased taxes. For instance, if a consumer normally buys powdered cream with coffee grinds, increased taxes may require a consumer to only purchase one of the goods. The coffee would be the good that the consumer would purchase, and would not purchase the creamer. A similar phenomenon would occur for a consumer that participates in buying superior and inferior goods. F or instance, a consumer usually buys higher priced brands of cereals, and due to higher taxes; the consumer may be content in purchasing generic brands of cereals instead of the normal purchase of higher priced brands. This is labeled as substitute goods, and denotes how a change in taxes will cause a consumer to substitute another good, and in t...
Posted by j at 3:58 PM
Friday, November 22, 2019
Timeline from 1800 to 1810 Decade By Decade: Timelines of the 1800s 1800: The second federal census was taken in 1800, and determined the population to be 5,308,483. Of that number, 896,849, about 17 percent, were slaves.April 24, 1800: Congress chartered the Library of Congress and allocated $5,000 to purchase books.November 1, 1800: President John Adams moved into the unfinished Executive Mansion, which would later be known as the White House.December 3, 1800: The United States electoral congress convened to decide the winner of the election of 1800. The election was disputed, and after a series of votes in the U.S. House of Representatives Thomas Jefferson was declared the winner over Aaron Burr and the incumbent John Adams.November 17, 1800: The United States Congress held its first session in its new home, the unfinished Capitol, at Washington, D.C. 1801: January 1, 1801: President John Adams began a tradition of White House receptions on New Years Day. Any citizen could stand on line, enter the mansion, and shake hands with the president. The tradition endured until well into the 20th century.January 1, 1801: The Act of Union, which bound Ireland to Britain, took effect.January 21, 1801: President John Adams nominated John Marshall as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall would go on to define the role of the court.February 19, 1801: Thomas Jefferson won the election of 1800, which was finally resolved in the U.S. House of RepresentativesMarch 4, 1801: Thomas Jefferson was inaugurated as president and delivered an eloquent inaugural address in the Senate chamber of the unfinished U.S. Capitol.March 1801: President Jefferson appointed James Madison as secretary of state. As Jefferson was a widower, Madisons wife Dolley began serving the White House hostess.March 10, 1801: The first census taken in Britain determines the po pulation of England, Scotland, and Wales to be about 10.5 million. March 16, 1801: George Perkins Marsh, an early advocate of conservation, was born in Woodstock, Vermont.April 2, 1801: At the Battle of Copenhagen, the British Navy defeated a Danish and Norwegian fleet in action related to the Napoleonic Wars. Admiral Horatio Nelson was the hero of the battle.May 1801: The Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the United States. President Thomas Jefferson responded by dispatching a naval squadron to fight the Barbary pirates.May 16, 1801:Ã William H. Seward, a senator from New York who would become Lincolns secretary of state, was born in Florida, New York.June 14, 1801: Benedict Arnold, famous traitor in the American Revolutionary War, died in England at the age of 60. 1802: April 4, 1802: Dorothea Dix, an influential reformer who headed efforts to organize Union nurses in the Civil War, was born in Hampden, Maine.Summer 1802: President Thomas Jefferson read a book by explorer Alexander Mackenzie, who had traveled across Canada to the Pacific Ocean and back. The book helped inspire what would become the Lewis and Clark Expedition.July 2, 1802: Jonathan Cilley, who would be killed in a duel fought between two members of Congress, was born at Notthingham, New Hampshire.July 4, 1802: The U.S. Military Academy opened at West Point, New York.November 1802: Washington Irving published his first article, a political satire signed with the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle.November 9, 1802: Elijah Lovejoy, a printer and abolitionist who would be killed for his anti-slavery beliefs, was born in Albion, Maine. 1803: February 24, 1803: The U.S. Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice John Marshall, decided Marbury v. Madison, a landmark case that established the principle of judicial review.May 2, 1803: The United States concluded the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase with France.May 25, 1803: Ralph Waldo Emerson was born in Boston.July 4, 1803: President Thomas Jefferson officially gave orders to Meriwether Lewis, who had been preparing for an expedition to the Northwest.July 23, 1803: A rebellion led by Robert Emmet broke out in Dublin, Ireland, and was quickly put down. Emmet was captured a month later.September 20, 1803: Robert Emmet, leader of an Irish rebellion against British rule, was executed in Dublin, Ireland.October 12, 1803: Alexander Turney Stewart, inventor of the department store and a leading merchant in New York City, was born in Scotland.November 23, 1803: Theodore Dwight Weld, a great organizer of the abolitionist movement, was born in Connecticut.December 20, 1803: The vast terr itory of the Louisiana Purchase was officially transferred to the United States. 1804: May 14, 1804: The Lewis and Clark Expedition began its westward voyage by heading up the Missouri River.July 4, 1804: Author Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts.July 11, 1804: The vice president of the United States, Aaron Burr, fatally wounded Alexander Hamilton in a duel at Weehawken, New Jersey.July 12, 1804: Alexander Hamilton died in New York City following the duel with Aaron Burr.August 20, 1804: A member of the Corps of Discovery on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Charles Floyd, died. His death would be the only fatality on the entire expedition.November 1804: Thomas Jefferson easily won reelection, defeating Charles Pinckney of South Carolina.November 1804: Lewis and Clark met Sacagawea at a Mandan village in present day North Dakota. She would accompany the Corps of Discovery to the Pacific Coast.November 23, 1804: Franklin Pierce, who served as President of the United States from 1853 to 1857, was born in Hillsborough, New Hampshire.December 2, 1804: Napol eon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France. December 21, 1804: Benjamin Disraeli, British author and statesman, was born in London. 1805: March 4, 1805: Thomas Jefferson took the oath of office for the second time and delivered a remarkably bitter inaugural address .April 1805: During the Barbary Wars, a detachment of U.S. Marines marched on Tripoli, and after victory, raised the American flag over foreign soil for the first time.August 1805: Zebulon Pike, a young U.S. Army officer, embarked on his first exploring expedition, which would take him to present day Minnesota.October 21, 1805: At the Battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Horatio Nelson was fatally wounded.November 15, 1805: The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the Pacific Ocean.December 1805: Lewis and Clark settled into winter quarters at a fort constructed by the Corps of Discovery. 1806: Bernard McMahon published The American GardenerÃ¢â¬â¢s Calendar, the first book on gardening published in America.Noah Webster published his first dictionary of American English.March 23, 1806: Lewis and Clark began their return journey from the Pacific NorthwestMarch 29, 1806: President Thomas Jefferson signed into law a bill allocating funds for the building of the National Road, the first federal highway.May 30, 1806: Andrew Jackson, future American president, killed Charles Dickinson in a duel provoked by disagreement over a horse race and insults to JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s wife.July 15, 1806: Zebulon Pike departed on his second expedition, a voyage with mysterious purposes that would take him to present day Colorado.September 23, 1806: Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Discovery returned to St. Louis, completing their expedition to the Pacific. 1807: Washington Irving published a little satirical magazine, Salmagundi. Twenty issues appeared between early 1807 and early 1808.March 25, 1807: The importation of slaves was prohibited by a law passed by the U.S. Congress, but the law would not take effect until the January 1, 1808.May 22, 1807: Aaron Burr was indicted for treason.June 22, 1807: The Chesapeake Affair, in which a U.S. Navy officer surrendered his ship to the British, created an enduring controversy. Years later, the incident would provoke a duel that would kill Stephen Decatur.July 4, 1807: Giuseppe Garibaldi was born.August 17, 1807: Robert FultonÃ¢â¬â¢s first steamboat left New York City bound for Albany, sailing on the Hudson River. 1808: Albert Gallatin completed his landmark Report on Roads, Canals, Harbors, and Rivers, a comprehensive plan for creating a transportation infrastructure in the United States.January 1, 1808: The law banning importation of slaves into United States took effect.November 1808: James Madison won the U.S. presidential election, defeating Charles Pinckney, who had lost to Thomas Jefferson four years earlier. 1809: February 12, 1809: Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky. On the same day, Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England.December 1809: The first book by Washington Irving, A History of New York, an inventive blend of history and satire, is published under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker.December 29, 1809: William Ewart Gladstone, British statesman and prime minister, was born in Liverpool. Decade By Decade: 1810-1820 | 1820-1830 | 1830-1840 | 1840-1850 | 1850-1860 | 1860-1870 | 1870-1880 | 1880-1890 | 1890-1900 | The Civil War Year By Year
Posted by j at 11:32 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Food Production - Research Paper Example The problem with these technological approaches to increasing harvests is they have created a system of food production that looks to productivity as the only measure of success. Our current system of Ã¢â¬Å"factory farmsÃ¢â¬ is highly productive but we are ignoring the environmental damage, the loss of nutrition and quality of our foodstuffs and the ethical concerns raised by the current feedlot method of raising animals for food. The true cost of our current industrialized method of food production can only be realized when we factor in all of these variables. The Ã¢â¬Å"Green RevolutionÃ¢â¬ of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s was truly a historic turning point for global agriculture. For the first time, populous nations such as India and China could feed themselves with the use of new farming techniques such as no-till planting and the administering of pesticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers to the land. More food was being produced than ever, but at what cost? Globally, farmers needed to raise more crops than ever because they needed to use fertilizer to compete with corporate farms. The abundance created by the Ã¢â¬Å"Green RevolutionÃ¢â¬ suppressed commodity prices. ... We have learned much about how to limit the damage caused by these powerful chemicals over the decades, but that does not change the fact that entire ecosystems, such as the Chesapeake Bay estuary, are constantly under stress as a result of out current agricultural practices. A final negative consequence that our current mechanized method of farming creates is an over-dependence on fossil fuels. Massive tractors and harvesters are employed to such an extent that a rise in gasoline prices now equates a rise in food prices. We have found ourselves in a precarious situation once again. Before the Ã¢â¬Å"Green RevolutionÃ¢â¬ we had hunger due to a lack of productivity. Now our factory farming system is creating a situation where the costs of production are putting the cost of food out of reach of many people. We have hunger because of a lack of money, not a lack of productive capacity. Another problem that our current method of industrialized food production is causing is a drop in th e nutrition found in the foods we eat. Many diseases and ailments have been linked to eating highly processed food that contain dyes and large amounts of refined sugar. Eating fresh fruits and vegetables is less common than in the past for several reasons. Processed foods are often more convenient to eat. They are packaged and often require a minimum of effort (or no effort at all) to prepare them for consumption. Fewer families sit down to eat meals together than they did in the past as well. Society has changed and the pace of life has increased for many people. As a result, processed foods of convenience such as fast food, has replaced more healthy foods such as vegetables and whole grains. But the
Posted by j at 3:41 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The influence of books & reading on the main character as a child in the novel Anton Reiser by Karl Philipp Moritz - Essay Example to one particular aspect of the work, namely, the analogy between Anton ReiserÃ¢â¬â¢s resort to reading books with the modern day teen phenomenon of using recreational drugs. A careful scrutiny of the early life of Reiser gives clues to his psychological development and his propensity to fall back on escapist activities. Foremost among the conditions was the family environment in which he grew up. He has a very unpleasant childhood as his parents never get along. From this backdrop of a dysfunctional family he is apprenticeship with a pietistic hat-maker proves equally troublesome and is forced to go back to school. His subsequent foray into the theatre also fails to take off. As Reiser gets pushed from one failed venture to the next, he is desperate to find an anchor to his life. It is here that books enter his life. They not only give him a feeling of liberation from his depressing reality, but also serve a therapeutic purpose (EncyclopÃ ¦dia Britannica, 2009. In other words, he resorts to books the way a troubled teenager would resort to recreational drugs in contemporary times. On a broader note, Ã¢â¬Å"Anton Reiser has been generally recognized as an important source of the Genie Periode in which the artistic temperament came into its own as fiction material, and as one of the first German followers, after Sophie la Roches FraÃ ¼lein von Sternheim (1771) and Jung-Stillings Autobiography (1777), of Rous seau s Confessions and perhaps of the Sentimental Journey, unless Werther in 1774 can be considered as preceding Reiser in that field. It has many typical traits of this sensitive spirit school as well as of the Bildungsroman.Ã¢â¬ (MÃ ¼ller, 1987, p.23) The relevance of ReiserÃ¢â¬â¢s reading habits goes much beyond escapism. As is accepted in literary circles, the focus of a high-quality literary work is not so much its plot but its aesthetics. While climax is an essential part of any work of literature, its ultimate value is determined by its artistic elements
Posted by j at 1:56 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Critically consider psychological explanations of love Essay There are three psychological theories of love, The Three Factor Theory of Romantic Love, Sternbergs Triangular Theory of Love and Romantic Love and Attachment. The three factor theory of romantic love suggested by Hatfield and Walster, recognises two types of love, passionate love and companionate love. Whilst passionate love can be seen as an intense physiological arousal which involves a longing for the other person, companionate love is more a feeling of affection towards those whom we feel deeply about. Hatfield and Walster propose a theory to explain passionate love based on three factors; physiological arousal, appropriate love object and cultural exposure. The authors see love as a label that is placed on someone that we are physiologically aroused by. Experiencing this arousal will cause a person to state it is because of love, since this is what our culture teaches us happens when we are in love. This theory receives support from research by Dutton and Aron. In this study, male participants were interviewed on a high or low suspension bridge, by an attractive female. The results supported the prediction that those males interviewed on a high bridge felt more sexual attraction to the woman, presumably because they experienced stronger physiological arousal. The males on the lower bridge felt less physical attraction, presumably because their physiological arousal was not as strong. It is possible that this theory could explain certain experiences such as love at first sight. However, since most people seem to fall in love gradually, this would suggest that for the majority of individuals, the label, love, comes first rather that the physiological arousal. The theory is also more applicable to western rather then eastern or collectivist cultures. Sternberg defines love as intimacy (sharing mutual understanding and emotional support), passion (involves physical attraction and sexual desire) and decision/commitment (involves the short-term decision that you love someone and a longer-term commitment to maintain that love). These three components of love can be combined in different ways to produce seven varieties of love; liking, infatuation, empty love, romantic love, compassionate love, fatuous love and consummate love. These seven types of love form a triangle. Consummate love being in the center as it is the strongest form of love since it involves all three components. Sternberg believes that people have two different types of triangle. The first is based on an individuals own theory of love and is formed in a cultural context from watching television, observing parents, reading books, including listening to fairy tales when young. The second triangle is based on the individuals current relationship. According to Sternberg when two triangles are similar, relationships tend to be more successful. The theory has practical applications it is possible to measure the components in the two parties and then analyse the differences in the types of love shown by each partner. It helps pinpoint areas where change and compromise may be necessary. However, the components are rather vague, especially commitment, and it is therefore difficult to judge the basis on which one person decides to love another. Hazan and Shaver proposed that romantic relationships are attachment relationships, and that individual differences in adult attachment style, mirror those found by psychologists who studied attachment styles such as Ainsworth. So rather than love being formed in a cultural context, Hazan and Shaver believe that love originates from a persons early relationship with a primary caregiver. This theory developed out of two earlier pieces of research by Ainsworth and Bowlby. Ainsworths strange situation and the observation that children have three different styles of attachment secure, insecure/anxious resistant and insecure/anxious avoidant. Bowlbys belief that the mothers behaviour towards the child creates an internal working model that leads the infant to expect the same in later relationships. According to Hazan and Shaver, later love relationships can be predicted from a childs attachment style. So therefore a secure child who had a positive image of a caring mother will have relationships in later life that are friendly, trusting and more enduring. A child classified as insecure/anxious resistant will have conflicting memories of the mother, both positive and rejecting, causing relationships in later life to consist of emotional highs and lows, with moments of jealousy and concerns whether their partners really love them. Insecure/anxious avoidant children will remember their mother as cold and rejecting and have relationships in later life where they fear being close to someone and believe love is not necessary for happiness nor is it long lasting. Hazan and Shavers research receives support from a number of studies in that there does seem to be a relationship between early attachment experiences and later attitudes and behaviour to love for example Feeny and Noller 1990. However the research has all been correlational in this area, so it cannot be claimed that early attachment causes later relationships behaviour. The relationship between the two could be caused by another factor. Kagon believes this other factor to be the temperament of the child. Infants are born with certain temperaments which determine the quality of their early relationships and these innate or genetic factors affect relationships throughout life. The three psychological theories of love provide partial explanations for this most intense of human emotion. Whilst Hatfield and Walster believe love to be a state of strong physiological arousal, Sternberg and Hazan and Shaver believe that love originates from a persons early relationships with a primary caregiver.
Posted by j at 2:27 AM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Utilitarianism is a consequential perspective, in that, a decision in based on the effects it ----will have on society and what it will generally lead to. Also, the utility or usefulness of an action is determined by the amount of happiness that will result. Therefore, no action in itself can be deemed wrong; consequence alone are the important matter. Using this principle, one should consider the possible results of each potential action. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One clear flaw of the utilitarian perspective is there that there seems to be a lack of the concept of justice. Their moral principles would justify doing experiments on a single man with no friends or family. The justification would still exist in a case in which the experiments would cause a man to die, yet benefits occurred because substantial medical knowledge was obtained. There also seems to be no intrinsic value placed upon human life, yet the value is placed upon the happiness of the greatest of people.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Utilitarianism follows one of two categories; act and rule. With Act Utilitarianism, all possible actions are considered and one must determine which action would yield the most happiness or benefits for the greatest number of people. However, with act utilitarianism, there really is no way of determining if the right choice of actions was carried out. Also, there is no clear way to be certain on what the results of the actions will be. For example, there is no way to be sure that a severely impaired infant will not recover enough to live a better life that what was predicted. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã However, acting morally doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean acting omniscient. A reasonable effort must be made to get relevant data to predict the possible consequences of all actions involved. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another form of utilitarianism would be rule utilitarianism. This moral standard suggest that an action is right if it follows a specific rule that has been structured and validated while keeping the principle of utility in mind. A rule utilitarian would not concern themselves with the utility of specific or individual cases, but would follow a set of particular rules. One would not have to go through the process of calculations involved in determining maximum utility, but a particular rule would... ...th RossÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Even in the case involving Alice Nuvo and her not wanting treatment my moral intuition came into play. Under most circumstances, my position is strictly to say that human life can never be allowed to pass if there is a reasonable means of preserving it. However, there can be no rules for me to follow because I find exceptions to this, and the case of Alice Nuvo would be such a case. I ruled that her autonomy surpasses any medical judgment. If she wants to be allowed to live out her life with her family and inevitably die, it should be her choice. Especially in a case such as this, I really have no way of reviewing my actions and seeing what rules I followed or what past cases I referred to. Once again, my moral intuition lead me to decide for her autonomy. However, moral intuition does not instantly occur when deciding on a case. There must be careful review of every aspect, action, and possible consequences before your moral intuition can decide upon anything. Af ter reviewing my decision scenarios, and taking into account the beliefs of utilitarianism, KantÃ¢â¬â¢s ethics, and RossÃ¢â¬â¢ ethics, I. without a doubt, that I am a follower of Ross.
Posted by j at 2:58 PM
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Infancy as well as early childhood is the actually the foundation of what we will become as an adult. Children are like sponges and will absorbs a much information that you will provide them being through nature or nurture. Parents and guardians are essential key players in making sure a child is not only psysically healthy, but is given all essential development tools to succeed in life. They way we interact with children when they are young as a family unit is very important and influencial that will affect on how they develop. Therefore, itÃ¢â¬â¢s crutial that we as parents realize that there is no right or wrong way of raising a child, however, we need to understand what a vital and important role we play in a childs life. How families affect the development of infants and young children When a child is born into this world is only requirement is being loved, staying clean and healthy. Families play a huge role in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development from the moment it enters into this world. As soon as infants come into this world they experience two categories of developmental changes the two categories are experienced-dependent and experience-expectant. Ã¢â¬Å"Early childhood experience is in two categories; experience-dependent (cultural-bound) and experience-expectant (universal) that aid in brain growth (Berger, 2008)Ã¢â¬ . Experience-expentact is when you involve the nervous system and the brain will develop a certain way where normal cognition is dependent on environmental exposure. In experience-dependent is when a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development and cognition reponse is from new experience that he or she will experience throughout their lifetime. A young childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain growth is depenet of both of these two categories in order to develop a healthy cognitive and emotional psychological development. Infants progress and sensorimotor intelligence process is formed by knowledge and experienmentation. All children at a young age depending on their age level love to touch, feel, and explorer everything around them. That is why parents and guardians will assist in teach their child through objects and reflecting what the object may be called or do. This is how family members are influence in a child language development. According to Berger (2008), by one an infant can speak about two words, and by the age ofÃ two languages explodes, and at the toddler ages a child capable of speaking in short sentences. Parenting Sytles Parenting styles differ in every family individualy because of their heritage, religion, environment. However, there are three different styles and used by parents they are authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. The authoritarian parent will control the childs environment and evaluate every behavior the child makes with standard rules. If the child does not abide by the rules of the house they will recived some form of punishment. According to Baumrind (1991), these parents are Ã¢â¬Å"status and obedience oriented, and expect rules to be followed without explanation.Ã¢â¬ For some may thinks this an unfair way of bringing up a child, but for some individuals this just a normal way of pareting. An authoritative parent will have some form of house hold rules but will be a little more democratic and open minded. They are nurturing and will listen to a childs needs and wants and explore option outside the rules and may make an exception. Ã¢â¬Å"Discipline with the authoritative parent is more supportive than punitive, as the parent wants the child to be assertive, socially responsible, self-regulating, and cooperative (Baumrind, 1991). The final parenting stule is permissive which very flexible way of bring up a child. They will consult with the child and make very little demand on the child. This style of parenting will not impact or alter the child, however is more a psychology control. The ultimate goal for the parent is to manipulate the child in your desire results without showing any power or authority. Early Childhood Education and Cognitive Development A childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development is highly dependent on intellectual and social stimulation.Early childhood education is typically the first instance in which a child is exposed to a learningatmosphere that is socially stimulating as well as intellectually stimulating. Whether a child is playing with other classmates during recess or practicing the alphabet, he or she is developing ona cognitive level. Young children often playÃ Ã¢â¬ËpretendÃ¢â¬â¢ activities such as playing house or cooking Infancy and Childhood Development Paper 5without any real food (mud, grass, etc.) These young children are using symbolism to applytheir Ã¢â¬ËpretendÃ¢â¬â¢ activities to situations that they have witnessed in real life. This process of usinginference to create symbolic activities is just one example of how early childhood education caninfluence a young childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development.Children also become more aware of the reactions of others while in an educationalatmosphere. In an educational atmosphere children work closely together when learning newsubjects in the classroom. Most early childhood education programs are heavily interactive andinvolve the communication and collaboration of all students within the classroom. This aspect of early childhood education helps the child develop social skills and also influences the ability torecognize the emotions and reactions of fellow classmates. As a result, the child should begin toacknowledge socially acceptable behaviors versus socially unacceptable behaviors (Seifert,2004).Another important aspect of early childhood education is the distinct differences thatexist between the childÃ¢â¬â¢s home environments versus his or her school environment. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents may be uninvolved, but when they begin early childhood education, the child is exposedto a completely different environment that he or she may not be accustomed to. The child maynot have had the opportunity to develop properly within his or her home environment, but theeducational environment gives the child a chance to grow and develop cognitively and sociallyConclusionThe development of an infant and young child can be quite complex. Every child is borninto a distinct atmosphere and the child must then learn to adjust and adapt to this atmosphere.Some children may be at a disadvantage because of a lack of involvement and attention from Infancy and Childhood Development Paper 6 parents or caregivers. Every parent has his or her own parenting style, which can have asubstantial and lasting impression on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. As the child begins pre-school or kindergarten, he or she must once again learn to adapt to a new environment apart from their home lives. Within the educational atmosphere children continue to develop socially andcognitively as they begin to interact with classmates and peers on a regular basis. No twochildren develop in the same way. Varying parenting styles, family values, home environments,and educational environments canÃ have an influence on how a child grows and develops betweeninfancy and early childhood.
Posted by j at 3:29 AM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Emily Grierson was a southern belle who represented the old ways of the south. A woman, who was stubborn, unchanging and unable to let go of her haunting past took both her burdens and the old ways of the south to her grave. Throughout the story the narrator refers to her as Ã¢â¬Å"Alive, Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty and a care, a sort of hereditary obligation on the town.Ã¢â¬ tradition meaning that she was sort of royalty to the towns people because her father was the mayor of the town. This Ã¢â¬Å"royaltyÃ¢â¬ gave Emily a sense of entitlement which could be seen throughout the story. An example would be when we she went to the store to buy some poison, she wanted the strongest poison the owner had to offer which was arsenic, a type of rat poison. Although the druggist, by law has to know what she is going to use the poison for, Emily refuses to answer and continues to stare at the man until he decides to give her the arsenic. This is one of the many examples of how Emily thinks she is somehow above the law and should not be questioned for her actions. Another example of her stubborn ways would be a few years later when she refuses to pay her taxes because Colonel Sartores said that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to. She states that Ã¢â¬Å" I have no taxes in Jefferson. Colonel Sartores explained it to me.Ã¢â¬ The sheriff continues to reason with her by informing her that the colonel sent a letter saying that she did in fact have to pay taxes but once again, she refuses to believe it because she is stubborn and stuck in her own ways. Ã This attitude of authority and entitlement was due the fact that her father was the mayor of the town and it was expected of everyone to showed respect. Not only was Emily entitled but she was also mentally unstable. It was thought that mental disorders ran in the family because her aunt was also mentally unstable as well. It seems that she has this need to want to control everything because she had an aunt who was mentally unstable. Going back to the tax incident it turned out that the colonel has been dead for ten years and there would be no way of checking with him because of this, this apart of the story reveals that she seems to be living in her own reality that she is living in the past. Another example of this is whenÃ her father died, her father sheltered her a lot shooing away boys so she became very isolated early in life. When her father died, she clinged on to the very thing that kept her from living a life of her own because that was the only life she had ever had. This event seemed to have left her in a depressed state where she would never leave the house until she meets a man named Homer Baron. Baron was a Yankee or a man from the north who took an interest in Emily, they were often seen together in town and most people thought that they were married. When Emily found out that baron w as not the Ã¢â¬Å"marrying typeÃ¢â¬ she decided to take matters into her own hands and killed baron with arsenic so that he would never leave her. Emily Grierson was an example of a way of life that was withering away. Miss Emily represented the old ways of the south and how they were dying off throughout the story. One prime example of this is when the Yankees from the north to help build new sidewalk for the town showing the readers that the times are changing and that the old ways of life are dying. EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to let go of the past and traditions represents what the old ways of the south were everything is preserved. The old ways of the south dealt with keeping up with tradition and preserving the past, which Emily, was also trying to preserve the shattered life that was left behind when her father died and any attempts to try and drag her out of the past and into the future were futile. Works-Cited Cheuse, Alan, Delbanco, Nicholas (2012): Literature: Craft and Voice (second edition). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill. Faulkner, William (1932): A rose for Emily:Literature: Craft and Voice (second edition). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill. Maimon, E.P., Peritz, J.H., Yancey, K.B. (2012): The McGraw-Hill Handbook (Third edition). New York, NY. p.417; Ã¢â¬Å" Referencing a book with two or more AuthorsÃ¢â¬
Posted by j at 9:27 PM
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Anorexia-Nervosa essays Individuals have many means of coping with societal dilemmas. These means range from taking a moment and counting to 20 to serious mental disorders. One of the most detrimental coping tactics is anorexia. This disease not only destroys the individuals life but also literally affects all surrounding individuals. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder in which an individual decides that all problems and uncomfortable situations surrounding them can be solved by eliminating food from their life. The individual is so engrossed with self-doubt that they believe that the loss of any ounce of fat on their body will make them a better person. Your life revolves around the concept that fat is an enemy that makes you the bad person you perceive yourself to be and the elimination of the enemy makes you a better person. One problem with this concept is that you can never completely eliminate the fat because you have a diluted self-image and losing fat does not make you a better person. How does this never-ending cycle start? Amazingly, this vicious cycle starts with one simple harmless diet. You want to lose five pounds before the homecoming dance so that you can look spectacular in the dress you purchased. You decide to cut out all snacks for a couple of weeks. You attend the dance, everyone comments on your appearance. You now have a positive reinforcement for losing weight. You start to reason that if everyone thought you looked great minus the five pounds that they will think you are even better minus ten pounds. You decide that you will eliminate breakfast until you lose the ten pounds. Your parents may start to question you at this point but you make some excuse about how you are just losing a little weight to fit into a dress. Again, everyone, including your parents this time, have a glowing review of the new you. This is the turning point in this scenario. You now have positive reinforcement from your ...
Posted by j at 3:25 PM
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How to Self-Publish a Book on Amazon [With Tools and Resources] How to Self-Publish a Book on Amazon [With Tools and Resources] How to Self-Publish a Book on Amazon [With Tools and Resources] By Ali Hale Fifteen or twenty years ago, self-publishing was looked on as a last resort option for books that a publisher wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to take on. It was also an expensive and time-consuming way to get a book out there. Self-publishers had to pay for a whole print run Ã¢â¬â maybe 1,000 or 2,000 copies Ã¢â¬â and they had to market it. During the past decade, though, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s been a huge rise in the popularity of self-publishing. Print-on-demand technology has made it possible to print just one copy of a paperback at a time, and e-readers like the Kindle have made ebooks far more popular than they once were. There are also many more options for marketing a self-published book Ã¢â¬â for instance, authors can pay to advertise on Facebook or Amazon, carefully targeting an audience who they think will be interested in their book. The low cost of self-publishing also means itÃ¢â¬â¢s suitable for authors who are working on a book as a hobby Ã¢â¬â for instance, perhaps theyÃ¢â¬â¢re writing a family memoir that they want to print for their grandchildren. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re thinking about self-publishing a book, you might be wondering how to even begin! In this post, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll take you through the basics you need to know Ã¢â¬â and give you plenty of links to further information. Are You Publishing a Print Book, an Ebook or Both? Before we go further, you need to think about whether you want to self-publish a paperback (or even a hardback) book that you can physically hold in your hands, or an ebook that can be downloaded onto a device. You may well want to publish both a print and an ebook edition of your book. But for some authors it makes sense to only do one or the other (or at least to start with just one). For instance: If you want to print a book to give to family and friends, or to sell in person at events, then you may only want to produce a print version. If your book is designed to be written in (e.g. a workbook or planner), again, it might make sense to only produce a print version. If your book is a mass-market novel that you want to sell cheaply and you donÃ¢â¬â¢t anticipate many people wanting to buy a printed version, then you may only want to bring it out as an ebook (which saves time/money on formatting and cover design). However, you might decide that you want to work on both the ebook and print version at the same time Ã¢â¬â which can help ensure that you prevent errors creeping in. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s up to you how you go forward, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that you have to do both ebook and print unless it makes sense for you. Where Will Your Book Be Sold? One way to publish an ebook would be to create the appropriate file formats and sell them directly from your own website. Most authors donÃ¢â¬â¢t do that, because it makes more sense to sell their ebook through a major online store Ã¢â¬â like Amazon, or the iBooks store. This is easy and familiar for readers, and it also means that the retailer will deal with any issues like returns and refunds. Amazon has the largest market share, and some authors choose to only publish their ebook with Amazon. Remaining exclusive to Amazon in this way has some benefits (chiefly, that your book is eligible to be enrolled in the Kindle Unlimited (KU) program, meaning readers signed up for KU can borrow it for free; youÃ¢â¬â¢ll receive a small fee each time itÃ¢â¬â¢s borrowed). If you want your book to appear in other ebook stores as well, you can distribute it to multiple retailers, such as the iBooks store and the Barnes Noble store, through third-party sites like Smashwords and Draft2Digital. With print books, again, you could sell them directly through your own site, but most authors donÃ¢â¬â¢t do that Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢d have to keep a stock of books at home, then package and send them out yourself whenever orders came in. Amazon is, again, the most popular retailer Ã¢â¬â but other online book stores also stock self-published books. Of course, you can also try to get your book into physical bookstores and libraries: if youÃ¢â¬â¢re keen to go down that route, itÃ¢â¬â¢s best to use Ingram Spark to print your book, as they can offer trade discounts. Further Reading: Selling Out: Going Wide or Going Exclusive to Amazon, David Kudler, The Book Designer Smashwords vs Draft2Digital Review, Dave Chesson, Kindlepreneur How to Self-Publish a Print Book, Joanna Penn, The Creative Penn How to Sell Your Self-Published book to Bookstores, Ingram Spark How to Publish an Ebook: A Simple Ebook Publishing Guide to SELL, Bella Rose Pope How to Prepare Your Completed Manuscript At this stage, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to assume you have a finished, edited, proofread manuscript. Many self-publishing authors advocate hiring an editor to ensure that your book is as good as it can be: if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not affordable for you, then see if a few friends would be willing to Ã¢â¬Å"beta readÃ¢â¬ the book and offer feedback. At the very least, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to get someone else to read through and look out for typos Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s tough to proofread your own work, as you know what you think you wrote! For your manuscript to look like a Ã¢â¬Å"realÃ¢â¬ finished book, whether ebook or paperback, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to format it in the right way. Here are some general pointers for both ebooks and paperbacks: Include a title page. This is a page at the start of your book, with the title in a large font and centred, and your author name below this (probably in a smaller font). Look at the first page or two any paperback you own, or look at the start of an ebook, to see what a title page looks like. Include a copyright page. You can see examples of these in any book or ebook, and you may want to base yours on those examples (theyÃ¢â¬â¢re generally very similar to one another in wording). Consider including a table of contents. If your manuscript has been created in Word or a similar program, use the in-built Ã¢â¬Å"Table of ContentsÃ¢â¬ feature to automatically create a table Ã¢â¬â this will then be linked to the different chapters within your book, if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve set those up using heading styles. Which leads me on to Use heading styles for your chapters titles. If you normally write Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 1Ã¢â¬ then highlight the text and manually set the font size, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not a good way to set things up. Instead, use the Ã¢â¬Å"Heading 1Ã¢â¬ style in Word for each chapter title. You can use Ã¢â¬Å"Heading 2Ã¢â¬ for subsections within the chapter. This saves you time, as it means you can reformat all the chapter headings with a few clicks, by changing the Heading 1 style. The next two tips apply particularly to ebooks that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be publishing on Amazon, but theyÃ¢â¬â¢re also good ones to follow when youÃ¢â¬â¢re formatting your manuscript for a print book: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t use the Ã¢â¬Å"tabÃ¢â¬ button or multiple spaces to indent paragraphs. These wonÃ¢â¬â¢t work well when your book is converted into an ebook format, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy for them to end up looking inconsistent. Instead, edit the Ã¢â¬Å"NormalÃ¢â¬ style in Word to set a first line paragraph indent. This should change all your text automatically. (YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to remove any tabs or extra spaces that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve included, though: the quickest way to do this is using Find and Replace.) DonÃ¢â¬â¢t use the Ã¢â¬Å"enterÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"returnÃ¢â¬ key to bump text down onto a new page (e.g. at the end of a chapter). Remember that in the ebook version, the length of each Ã¢â¬Å"pageÃ¢â¬ will be determined by the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s device settings Ã¢â¬â so those big gaps could end up appearing in the middle of a page. Instead, use a Ã¢â¬Å"page breakÃ¢â¬ . You can either enter these manually each time, or set up the Heading 1 style so that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always a page break before each bit of Heading 1 text. These final two tips apply to print books: Make sure that Ã¢â¬Å"page 1Ã¢â¬ of your book will appear on the right-hand side of a double-page spread and that your subsequent chapters also start on the odd numbered pages (if you look in any print book, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll see what I mean)! This may mean inserting a Ã¢â¬Å"blank pageÃ¢â¬ into your manuscript at some points. Always use the template provided by the company whoÃ¢â¬â¢ll be printing this book (and make sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve downloaded it in the right size for your finished book). This means that things like the margin (the space around the edges of the page) and gutter (the bit in the middle of a double page spread) will be set correctly for you. Further Reading: The Self-PublisherÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to the Copyright Page (with Template), Reedsy Smashwords Style Guide, Mark Coker A Quick Guide to Formatting Your Microsoft Word Manuscript for AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s Kindle, Ali Luke, Aliventures Getting a Cover for Your Book If youÃ¢â¬â¢re publishing in ebook form only, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a front cover: this is the image that appears for your book on Amazon and in other e-retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s stores. It should be a flat, rectangular image (not a stylised 3D one that looks like a book). If youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to publish a paperback, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a front cover, spine and back cover. These are normally supplied as a single image that wraps around your book. Cover design makes an enormous difference to how people perceive your book. If you create the cover yourself, chances are, itÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up looking a bit amateur. Readers will inevitably assume that the quality of the cover says something about the quality of the book (even though your book might be brilliantly well-written). So, if possible, do budget for a cover designer. There are loads of companies and individuals out there who offer cover design Ã¢â¬â you might want to ask around to see who other authors are using. I use Design for Authors for my novel covers: their prices are very reasonable and they do great work. Further Reading: How to Design a Fiction Book Cover in Canva, Ihor Tureh, Kindlepreneur The e-Book Cover Design Awards series, Joel Friedlander, The Book Designer (scroll down for links to each monthÃ¢â¬â¢s post) Mastering Book Cover Design, G2 Pricing Your Book What should you charge for your finished book? If itÃ¢â¬â¢s a print book, this will be determined in part by how much it costs to produce the book Ã¢â¬â if it costs you $6.50 per book, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to charge more than that so you make a profit. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t want to charge so much, though, that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t buy it! With ebooks, pricing can be a little tricky. Your costs per book sold are negligible so should you charge as little as possible and hope for lots of sales, or charge more to get more profit per book? This is further complicated by AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s royalty system. Amazon pays: 35% royalties on books priced between $0.99 and $2.98 70% royalties on books priced between $2.99 and $9.99 35% royalties on books priced at $10 or more This means that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably not want to price your ebook over $9.99, even if itÃ¢â¬â¢s a complex piece of non-fiction or several novels all in one. Some authors find that pricing at $0.99 or $1.99 results in sufficient extra sales to make up for the lower royalty rate; others think itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to price at $2.99, $3.99 or $4.99. With non-fiction, you may well want to go higher than this $7.99 or $8.99 are not uncommon. Further Reading: Pricing Books And The Use Of Free, Joanna Penn, The Creative Penn The Price Is Right: 6 Secrets to Pricing Your Ebook, David Kudler, The Book Designer How to Publish Your Book Online Whether you use Amazon or another service to publish your book, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to have certain information to hand Ã¢â¬â both about your book and about you. You can create your account here on Amazon, or you can use your existing Amazon(.com) account. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s then a step-by-step process to upload your manuscript and enter information about your book Ã¢â¬â like the title, author name, pricing, and so on. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll have the option to preview your manuscript. Do check that everything in the preview appears the way you want it. You can always adjust and re-upload your manuscript if you need to. Once you click the button to publish your book, it may take up to 48 hours to appear on AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s online store. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re using Draft2Digital or Smashwords to publish your book, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll have a different process, and it may take longer for your books to appear in stores. With print books, the process can take a little longer as youÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably want to order a physical proof to examine and approve, before putting your book live for people to buy. However youÃ¢â¬â¢re selling your book, at some stage, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to enter your bank account details and your tax information. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t always need to enter these in order to publish a book, but you will need them before you can receive money. Further Reading: Getting Started: Amazon Kindle Direct Publishing, Amazon How to Publish with Draft2Digital, Draft2Digital Theres a LOT to think about when self-publishing a book Ã¢â¬â and plenty of details that we havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had space to cover in this post but will do in subsequent ones. You may also want to join the Alliance of Independent Authors, a worldwide organisation that offers lots of help and services for self-publishing authors: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been a member for several years now and, again, highly recommend it. Best of luck with your book! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Fiction Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Has vs. Had20 Pairs of One-Word and Two-Word Forms1,462 Basic Plot Types
Posted by j at 9:24 AM
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Head of Budget and Management Committee - Essay Example The vast nature of engagements entails the use of voluminous data that pose challenges in retrieval, management, and interpretation. In order to compete favorably on the fluid and complex market, Merrill Lynch should adopt a technological solution that would synchronize, harmonize, and organize data in a manner that improves on the efficiency of the firm . Such a task would necessarily demand the adoption of a computerized mechanism with ultra-modern features suitable for performing a vast range of tasks in the shortest time possible. Such a system would also shield the company from the possibilities of human error. Changes in information management systems often determine the competitive advantage that one firm gets over another. The United States and Canadian corporate sectors are some of the heaviest consumers of technological innovations across the times. The rapid developments in the field of Information Communication and Technology have made it possible for businesses and mu ltinationals to exploit the synergies in the world of commerce in ways that are both responsive to the needs of the clientele and the overall mission and objectives of the organizations. The adoption of the touch screen tablet will add to the operational efficiency of the firm, which would ultimately translate into increased profits and cuts on expenses. Description and Analysis Touch screen would redefine the work environment at Merrill Lynch offices. The technology will offer a range of choices to the workers in ways that will engage them more closely and effectively with the tasks at the work place. The adoption of new working machine will require a reorganization of the office space. Studies and inquiries into... The researcher of this essay states that despite an impressive lead in the provision of legal services, Merrill LynchÃ¢â¬â¢s real potential is held back by challenges of logistics arising from its continued dependence on old technologies. On this note, there is the pressing need to adopt the use of touchscreen tablets for increasing the levels of efficiency and effectiveness in the legal processes. The overarching concern revolves around the need of keeping pace with technological innovations and retaining a comfortable hold on the clientele through quality services while exploring all possible entry points into alternative segments on the market. The researcher provides a descriptive analysis on the topc of adoption of the new technologies for the company and aims to present some positive effects of it. The need to adopt new technologies at Merrill Lynch should be understood within the context of environmental factors and effects. Merrill Lynch operates an unpredictable environmen t within the American and Canadian corporate sectors. High levels of technological innovations are the key feature that defines this environment. Separate studies have associated the adoption of technology with a significant reduction of work-related stress and burnout. The researcher then sums up his study and concluds that the adoption of the technological devices at Merrill Lynch would be a positive step towards entrenching its corporate profile with regard to enhance it's performance and quality of services.
Posted by j at 2:02 AM
Thursday, October 31, 2019
To what extent does Karl von Clausewitz explain the changing nature of warfare after 1798 - Essay Example ClausewitzÃ¢â¬â¢s main claim in his book Ã¢â¬ËOn WarÃ¢â¬â¢ published in 1831 revolves around the fact that in order to understand warfare, it must be considered as a social phenomenon. War comes from deliberate circumstances and these circumstances make wars easier to understand. This statement was considered in the light of two conceptions of war at that time, first, that war is capable of linear solutions, and secondly, that war is basically chaotic and cannot be rationally evaluated (Gat, 1989). This view of war led to the perception that it is merely an offshoot of politics, mixed is with violence. This perception hid a more complex phenomenon. First and foremost, war has changed over time. Since social organizations have changed over the years, the nature of parties competing has also changed. Secondly, in seeking a better understanding of what is happening in conflicts, there is no longer a need to consider the military events in a political setting. Third, there is a nor mative element in the formula. Clausewitz was of the belief that force was more acceptable when it was considered as a tool for state policy. Considering the suffering caused by war, this was the justifiable reason utilized in the use of violence; however a normative failure would not negate the analytical process. (Clausewitz, eds, Howard and Paret, 1979, p. 586). In order to establish a practical understanding of war, there was a need to evaluate the relationship between military activities and the political climate of these events. On the outset, there was a direct linear link between the scale of the goal sought and the extent of force required to fulfill it. In a conflict which was carried out to conquer an opponent who aimed to totally conquer and annex a country, one is almost always certain to expect significant efforts to defeat the aggressor. On the other hand, where a smaller objective was sought, a smaller consequent action would be seen. Clausewitz was of the understand ing that events on the battlefield and in the political arena are very much related to each other. A battlefield victory might prevent other nations from being embroiled in any conflict, it may also convince them of the fact that a victor has become a threat to them (Szabo, 2008). A victory may also convince a nation that its competitor is weak and that it needs to improve its objectives. The consideration of a country deciding to intervene or step away from a conflict would
Posted by j at 7:37 PM
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Government 1 - Dissertation Example It should be noted that Georgia and the Carolinas were two regions that supported slavery and their decision to stay out of the union would have been due to their refusal to abolish slavery at some point in the history of America. Thus, it would have been written in the history of America that Georgia and the Carolinas stayed out of the union as they refused to abolish slavery in their own territories. America would have tried to use force to bring these territories back to them and these would have also been written in the history of America. If Georgia and Carolina had stayed out of the union, it would have been that slavery was what divided America. Thus, slavery would have been the political divisive factor that made Georgia and the Carolinas to stay out of the union. The United States of America would not in any way have succeeded without a written constitution. If there is anything that is keeping the United States of America together, it is in the fact that they have a written constitution (Taylor, 2001). If there was no written constitution in the United States, there would not be law and order in the country. The fact that the leaders and other citizens of the country know that they must not do things that are not contrary to what was written in the constitution plays a great part in the survival of the country.
Posted by j at 5:23 PM
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Criminal Profiling vs Racial Profiling Racial profiling is a social problem that has erupted throughout the country. Many provinces, cities, social groups, and academics have studied racial profiling and how race and ethnicity may play a part in police investigations. Allegations of racial profiling have been around for years, and still is a subject that creates a lot on media hype and controversy surrounding police and their interaction with minorities. In Toronto, there have been numerous newspaper and television articles accusing the Toronto Police Service of systematic racism (Canadian Race Relations Foundations, 2005). Racial profiling should not be confused with criminal profiling, because they are two different things (Mucchetti, 2006, pp. 1-32). Racial profiling is not specific to one race or one country. Actually being racially profiled can happen to anyone at any time no matter what race or sex or country they live in. This paper will examine racial profiling and criminal profiling by police and explaining how the different sociological perspectives; functionalist, conflict, interactionist, and feminist perspectives view it. The paper will also attempt to argue if there is systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police. My thesis is the Toronto Police does not systematically racially profile, instead they systematically criminally profile. In order to examine racial profiling and criminally profiling one must understand the differences between the two. Although there is no clear or universal definition of racial profiling, there is a common component in all of the definitions (Ontario Human Rights Commission, 2009). This paper defines racial profiling as the practice of targeting racial minorities for criminal investigation solely or, in part, on the basis of their skin colour (Court of Appeal for Ontario, 1999). According to the Harvard Latino Law Review, criminal profiling involves: The use of racial or ethnic characteristics by police departments in stopping an individual because his or her description matches that of an actual suspect. In this sense, race functions as the equivalent of hair color or height, which can then be used in combination with other factors to paint a more accurate portrait of a suspected criminal. As a result, generalized notions of criminal propensity are not projected onto an individual because of that persons membership in a particular racial or ethnic group (Mucchetti, 2006, pp. 1-32). The term racial profiling began in the 1980s, when the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) in the United States developed and used common characteristics to profile drug couriers as part of the agencies war on drugs (Harris, 2006, pp. 213-239). When community members began to complain about police investigations and their actions towards minorities the uses of the profiling technique emerged to be labelled as racial profiling (Ibid). Functionalist, conflict, interactionist, and feminist perspectives all believe racial profiling is one of discrimination, pressure and manipulation of subordinate groups so that the dominant group can exercise their social class, race, and sexual superiority over others (Banks, Eberhardt, Ross, 2006, pp. 1169-1190). Prejudice in racial profiling is caused by psychological and socially constructed influences, where individuals are influenced by their surroundings to hate another solemnly based on their race (Guimond, Dambrun, Michinov, Duarte, 2003, pp. 697-721). The functionalist perspective believes society is divided into two groups, the dominant and subordinate. And, that these groups are a natural part of society (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Functionalist also believe society is not balanced in terms of race, because it is natural for one group of people to be superior over the other and that racial equality will reduce the dominate group power on subordinate group (Kimberle Williams Crenshaw, 1988, pp. 1331-1387). Therefore, functionalist view racial profiling as being formed by dominate groups to cause the subordinate groups to feel inferior, so they can have their own roles in society because it is how society intended it to be. Conflict perspective believe that all groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle because the dominant groups who have social, political and economical power, struggle to maintain their privileged position over the subordinate groups (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Conflict theorists also believe everyone is equal, despite his or her race, sex or employment, opposed to the functionalist theory (Ibid). They also believe racialized and ethnic inequality is caused due to economic stratification (Ibid). The dominate group determines what laws should be enforced and what penalties are to be administered. They also determine what subordinate group will be targeted, arrested and punished unfairly in order to maintain their positions in a capitalist society. The police are used as a tool by the dominate group to maintain their position in society. Racial profiling by police is only one of the methods used by police to enforce the rules of the dominate class. Symbolic interactionist perspective can be used to explain officers behaviour which is based in social psychology (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). The social dynamics involving the interaction between officer and citizen may influence officers behaviour and cause them to racially profile. The interactionist approach emphasizes how racialized socialization contributes to feelings of solidarity with ones own racialized or ethnic group and hostility towards others (Ibid) which could cause citizens to challenge officers authority if they felt their identities were being challenged, their civil liberties were being restricted, or the officer was acting in a rude behaviour. Although symbolic interactionist perspective does not directly explain why police initially stop minorities, it does explain the social interaction between the officer and citizen and how it could result in the citizen feeling of being racially profiled if the officers interaction was professional. Feminist perspective is based on critical-conflict perspective (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). A feminist view on racial profiling is about gender and race differences, and the limitations associated with traditional male-dominance in society. There is no one feminist perspective that can explain a social problem such as racial profiling because all are theories of oppression, differences, and inequality (Ibid). Social activist groups along with minority groups claims of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service exists and refer to published articles to support their claims, such as the 2002 series of newspaper articles written by the Toronto Star, and the lack of racial statistics compiled by the Toronto Police Service. In these articles, the Toronto Star articles used empirical data collected from the Toronto Police Services Criminal Information Processing System (CIPS) database. According to the newspaper articles that examined 480,000 files contained within the database, relating to arrest and traffic stops, claim Blacks arrested by Toronto Police are treated more harshly than white, and a disproportionate number of black motorists are ticketed for violations that only surface following a traffic stop. According to civil libertarians, community leaders and criminologists, the difference could suggest that police use racial profiling in deciding whom to pull over (Toronto Star Newspaper, 2009, p. A01). Social and minority groups also support their claims of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service, as the Service does not collect or release race base statistics. They argue One fears that the only reason the Police Board refuses to release this data is to ensure that the public does not get updated information on racial profiling (Toronto Police Accountability Coalition, 2008). This paper concedes that racial profiling may exist on an individual basis (micro-level) within the Toronto Police Service. This was confirmed by Chief Blair of the Toronto Police Service who was speaking a diversity conference and said: Racism is a human failing. Racial profiling can occur. Weve acknowledged that right up front (Doolittle, 2009). As a police officer, it is obvious that there are errors in the Toronto Stars conclusions. The Toronto Star compiled its data using the files contained in the CIPS database, which only contained files relating to arrest and tickets issued to persons. The problem using only this database is that it does not take into account the number of people the police actually investigate where there were no arrest or tickets issued, or the fact that the CIPS system excludes information on part 1 Provincial Offences tickets; i.e. seatbelt, speeding etc. as it only includes part 3 Provincial offences tickets (more serious offences). By only selecting the CIPS database and not the true number of persons stopped by police skewed the final results. Professor Edward B. Harvey, a PhD, from the University of Toronto confirmed this fact that the Toronto Police database, which was not designed for research purposes, contains so many flaws that its uses in research is limited (Harvey, 2003). The data-collection by the Toronto Star was also disputed by Allan Gold based on the distinction between reactive and proactive policing (2003, pp. 391-399). Gold argues reactive policing could attribute to claims of racial profiling while proactive policing will not. When it comes to the collection of data, the Toronto Start uses both styles of policing which flawed their conclusion (Ibid). It is very well known that any and every methodology in the social sciences is open to criticism and attack (May, 2001). Max Weber a pioneering sociologist and social researcher stresses the importance of proper methodology in social research in examining any social problem, and how crucial it is to understanding the problem (Alasuutari, 2010, pp. 139-155). The Toronto Stars article and how they used the data and the omission of vital data has skewed the final results. These errors have created false evidence of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service, which has been proven. The argument of race based crime statistics date back to 1929 (Johnston, 1994, p. 166). Social activist groups along with minorities groups have argued that the reason Toronto Police Service is not releasing race based crime statistics is due to the that the Service in fact racially profiling, which would be proven by the statistics (Toronto Police Accountability Coalition, 2008). In fact in 1989 the opposite argument was used by community groups when then Inspector Julian Fantino released crime based statistics, claiming them to be inherently racist calling for their abolishment (Johnston, 1994, p. 166). According to Robin S. Engel an Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati and Director of the University of Cincinnati Policing Institute, Data will never prove or disprove racially biased policing, we contend that vehicle stop data collection and analysis should never be viewed-either by police or resident stakeholders-as a pass fail test. Rather, it should be viewed as a diagnostic tool to help pinpoint the decisions, geographic areas, and procedures that should get priority attention when the agency, in concert with concerned residents, identifies its next steps for addressing the problem or perception of racial profiling (2008, pp. 1-36). Institutional racism consists of the day-to-day practices of an organization that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011) and delivered at the macro-level. In order for the argument of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service to be true, the Service would have to have policies or procedures in place that sanctioned it. In fact, the Toronto Police Service does not sanction any form of racial profiling by its members. The Service has numerous rules and procedures that prohibit racial profiling along with a Diversity Management Unit that monitors all human rights complaints and ensures that all members provide a bias-free service to the community (2009). Members of the Toronto Police Service are also being constantly reminded their responsibility in providing a bias-free service to the community. These reminders are done through training and education, the Services Core Values and letters to the members of the Service, such as a letter written in 2003 by then Chief Juilian Fantino who wrote; we must be aware that social and institutional pressures can lead to unacceptable instances of racial bias in policing. Police officers must make their decisions to engage the public based on the actions or conduct that they observe, on actual witness information and/or on hand evidence. Police officers must have articulable cause or reasonable grounds in order to pursue legitimate law enforcement activities with a member of the public. We must not make any decision to stop, question and/or search citizens based solely on a persons race. All of us, at all times, must provide equitable and respectful service to all persons regardless of race. I believe that the best way to deal with this and all other issues is simply by always treating people, all people, professionally. Lets continue to treat all people and each other with dignity and respect. Professional conduct means that we will never go wrong or be found wanting in our dealings with all components of our diverse society (Toronto Police Service, 2003). To ensure that members of the Toronto Police Service are not racially profiling the Toronto Police Service is working in partnership with the Ontario Human Rights Commission to ensure the Services hiring practices reflect the diversity of the City of Toronto, training officers in ethics, and diversity and how to recognize racial bias policing (2009) Although the Toronto Police Service does not systematically racially profile, they do systematically criminally profile. Criminal profiling also known as Criminal Investigative Analysis (CIA) is an effective tool enabling law enforcement agencies to enforce the law more effectively (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). The origins of criminal profiling can be traced back to 1800s when it was first used in case to identify Jack to Ripper (Winerman, 2004, p. 66). The current use of criminal profiling by law enforcement was developed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), in the United States by their Behaviour Science Unit (Ibid). The uses of this technique has also with stood the threshold of law and been recognized as a valid investigative technique. Criminal profiling involves a multidisciplinary approach that examines and understands criminal behaviour using many sociological perspectives. Functionalist perspective view crime as a result of the lack moral order within a society which is necessary to hold society together (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Conflict perspective suggests that disadvantage groups are more likely to become criminals than those who are privileged. It also sees higher-income citizens being able to hide their criminal acts better and punished differently then disadvantage groups, if caught. Symbolic interactionist perspective helps us understand how people learn to become criminals and how being labelled a criminals can increase the probability that the person will engage in criminal behaviour (Ibid). Each perspective traces criminal behaviour to social conditions rather than to the individuals race, sex, ethnicity or disability. Criminal profiling can be broken into two stages; the first could be described as general profiling and the second as specific profiling (Palermo, 2002, pp. 383-385). General profiling is part of an officers everyday duties and investigations of any crime, such as traffic stops, while specific profiling is more refined in the officers approach to evidence and crime scene investigations (Ibid). Criminal profiling can also take on several forms. The first form of criminal profiling can be institutional, which is where the organization develops the profile of the offender, while the second for can be formed by the individual officer. This form of criminal profiling is developed by the officer from his or her own experiences (Higgins Gabbidon, 2009, pp. 77-88). In todays policing, Toronto Police Service front-line officers incorporated the general profiling aspect of criminal profiling when performing their general duties but will on occasion incorporate specific profiling aspects when responding to a serious radio call. The officers will also use both institutional and individual forms of criminal profiling as well. A basic form of institutional criminal profiling is taught to members of the Toronto Police Service when he or she attends the Ontario Police College as a basic recruit. The recruits are provided the necessary knowledge of laws, procedures and skills that will help them perform their duties as frontline officers. With emphasis on the core function of police services found in the Ontario Police Service Act section 4(2) which focuses on Crime Prevention, Law Enforcement, Assistance to Victims of Crime, Public Order Maintenance, and Emergency Response (2009). The officers are also provided training a variety of subjects including, ethics, anti-racism and community policing (Ibid). The training does not stop when a officer leave the Ontario Police College, the officers are further trained at the Toronto Police College in the Services Rule and Procedures, Core Values and Mission Statement of the Service along with officer safety training. Officers develop individual criminal profiling skills when they start patrolling the streets of Toronto. The officer will respond to thousands of calls varying from thefts, domestics, fights, to vehicle stops. Each time the officer interacts with the individuals, he or she develops their own brand of policing and individual criminal profiling techniques. In community policing, officers work closely with problem communities, in developing strategies to help the community combat crime. Working with the community, officers receive information from residences on potential criminal activities and individuals within the community, so that they can develop strategies to reduce crime. Officers will incorporate all aspects of criminal profiling to either be reactive or proactive in an attempt to reduce criminality. Being reactive, officers focus their attention on direct information that is received from the community to reduce the current problem within the community, while proactive policing allows the officers to profile activities and individuals within the community to prevent further victimization. Officers also use criminal profiling when they perform traffic stops. The officer use individual criminal profiling when he or she selects an area to monitor the traffic flow, which is based on the officers personal experience. The officer might select an area where there is a high rate of incidences of failing to stop at a sign or a section or roadway where vehicle speed. When the officer decides to stop the vehicle for a violation of the Highway Traffic Act, he or she again criminally profiles the vehicle and occupants for officer safety reasons. The officer will conduct registration checks on the vehicle and the registered owner, all the time observing the occupants of the vehicle before stopping the vehicle, in order identify any criminal activity. This part of criminal profiling it taught to the officers by the Ontario Police College and the Toronto Police College (institutional criminal profiling) as part of the Officers Safety Section within both colleges, in order to keep the officer safe. There are those who argue that criminal profiling is not supported by scientific evidence and should be dismisses as rhetoric and never be used. This paper agrees that criminal profiling is limited in empirical data but is still a useful tool to combat crime. According to a research study which states, criminal profiling will persist as a pseudoscientific technique until such time as empirical and reproducible studies are conducted on the abilities of large groups of active profilers to predict, with more precision and greater magnitude, the characteristics of offenders (Snook, Eastwood, Gendreau, Goggin Cullen, 2007, pp. 437-453). In conclusion, it is important to rethink racial profiling through the lens of criminal profiling and to reduce race to the role that it is purportedly playing in racial profiling, namely a predictive factor; to treat race no differently than we would gender, class, age, or any other profile that works; to take the focus away from race and place it on criminal profiling more generally. Rethinking racial profiling through the lens of criminal profiling actually sheds light on police practices. The Toronto Police Service does not systematically racially profile as the media, social and minority groups would have us believe. In order for the Toronto Police Service to be blamed for systematically racially profiling, the Service would have to be a plan or procedure in place to support it. The Toronto Police Service does not support any form of racial profiling by it members Criminal profiling plays a crucial and significant role in deterring and combating criminal behaviour and activity. Criminal profiling provides a valuable tool for police in which they can assess and analyze the patterns of criminal behaviour (Turvey, 2008, pp. 1-43). The Toronto Police Service systematically criminally profiles and treats the race component of criminal profiling no differently than they would gender, class, age, or any other profile that works.
Posted by j at 2:55 PM