Thursday, October 31, 2019

To what extent does Karl von Clausewitz explain the changing nature of Essay

To what extent does Karl von Clausewitz explain the changing nature of warfare after 1798 - Essay Example Clausewitz’s main claim in his book ‘On War’ published in 1831 revolves around the fact that in order to understand warfare, it must be considered as a social phenomenon. War comes from deliberate circumstances and these circumstances make wars easier to understand. This statement was considered in the light of two conceptions of war at that time, first, that war is capable of linear solutions, and secondly, that war is basically chaotic and cannot be rationally evaluated (Gat, 1989). This view of war led to the perception that it is merely an offshoot of politics, mixed is with violence. This perception hid a more complex phenomenon. First and foremost, war has changed over time. Since social organizations have changed over the years, the nature of parties competing has also changed. Secondly, in seeking a better understanding of what is happening in conflicts, there is no longer a need to consider the military events in a political setting. Third, there is a nor mative element in the formula. Clausewitz was of the belief that force was more acceptable when it was considered as a tool for state policy. Considering the suffering caused by war, this was the justifiable reason utilized in the use of violence; however a normative failure would not negate the analytical process. (Clausewitz, eds, Howard and Paret, 1979, p. 586). In order to establish a practical understanding of war, there was a need to evaluate the relationship between military activities and the political climate of these events. On the outset, there was a direct linear link between the scale of the goal sought and the extent of force required to fulfill it. In a conflict which was carried out to conquer an opponent who aimed to totally conquer and annex a country, one is almost always certain to expect significant efforts to defeat the aggressor. On the other hand, where a smaller objective was sought, a smaller consequent action would be seen. Clausewitz was of the understand ing that events on the battlefield and in the political arena are very much related to each other. A battlefield victory might prevent other nations from being embroiled in any conflict, it may also convince them of the fact that a victor has become a threat to them (Szabo, 2008). A victory may also convince a nation that its competitor is weak and that it needs to improve its objectives. The consideration of a country deciding to intervene or step away from a conflict would

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Government 1 Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Government 1 - Dissertation Example It should be noted that Georgia and the Carolinas were two regions that supported slavery and their decision to stay out of the union would have been due to their refusal to abolish slavery at some point in the history of America. Thus, it would have been written in the history of America that Georgia and the Carolinas stayed out of the union as they refused to abolish slavery in their own territories. America would have tried to use force to bring these territories back to them and these would have also been written in the history of America. If Georgia and Carolina had stayed out of the union, it would have been that slavery was what divided America. Thus, slavery would have been the political divisive factor that made Georgia and the Carolinas to stay out of the union. The United States of America would not in any way have succeeded without a written constitution. If there is anything that is keeping the United States of America together, it is in the fact that they have a written constitution (Taylor, 2001). If there was no written constitution in the United States, there would not be law and order in the country. The fact that the leaders and other citizens of the country know that they must not do things that are not contrary to what was written in the constitution plays a great part in the survival of the country.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Criminal Profiling vs Racial Profiling

Criminal Profiling vs Racial Profiling Racial profiling is a social problem that has erupted throughout the country. Many provinces, cities, social groups, and academics have studied racial profiling and how race and ethnicity may play a part in police investigations. Allegations of racial profiling have been around for years, and still is a subject that creates a lot on media hype and controversy surrounding police and their interaction with minorities. In Toronto, there have been numerous newspaper and television articles accusing the Toronto Police Service of systematic racism (Canadian Race Relations Foundations, 2005). Racial profiling should not be confused with criminal profiling, because they are two different things (Mucchetti, 2006, pp. 1-32). Racial profiling is not specific to one race or one country. Actually being racially profiled can happen to anyone at any time no matter what race or sex or country they live in. This paper will examine racial profiling and criminal profiling by police and explaining how the different sociological perspectives; functionalist, conflict, interactionist, and feminist perspectives view it. The paper will also attempt to argue if there is systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police. My thesis is the Toronto Police does not systematically racially profile, instead they systematically criminally profile. In order to examine racial profiling and criminally profiling one must understand the differences between the two. Although there is no clear or universal definition of racial profiling, there is a common component in all of the definitions (Ontario Human Rights Commission, 2009). This paper defines racial profiling as the practice of targeting racial minorities for criminal investigation solely or, in part, on the basis of their skin colour (Court of Appeal for Ontario, 1999). According to the Harvard Latino Law Review, criminal profiling involves: The use of racial or ethnic characteristics by police departments in stopping an individual because his or her description matches that of an actual suspect. In this sense, race functions as the equivalent of hair color or height, which can then be used in combination with other factors to paint a more accurate portrait of a suspected criminal. As a result, generalized notions of criminal propensity are not projected onto an individual because of that persons membership in a particular racial or ethnic group (Mucchetti, 2006, pp. 1-32). The term racial profiling began in the 1980s, when the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) in the United States developed and used common characteristics to profile drug couriers as part of the agencies war on drugs (Harris, 2006, pp. 213-239). When community members began to complain about police investigations and their actions towards minorities the uses of the profiling technique emerged to be labelled as racial profiling (Ibid). Functionalist, conflict, interactionist, and feminist perspectives all believe racial profiling is one of discrimination, pressure and manipulation of subordinate groups so that the dominant group can exercise their social class, race, and sexual superiority over others (Banks, Eberhardt, Ross, 2006, pp. 1169-1190). Prejudice in racial profiling is caused by psychological and socially constructed influences, where individuals are influenced by their surroundings to hate another solemnly based on their race (Guimond, Dambrun, Michinov, Duarte, 2003, pp. 697-721). The functionalist perspective believes society is divided into two groups, the dominant and subordinate. And, that these groups are a natural part of society (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Functionalist also believe society is not balanced in terms of race, because it is natural for one group of people to be superior over the other and that racial equality will reduce the dominate group power on subordinate group (Kimberle Williams Crenshaw, 1988, pp. 1331-1387). Therefore, functionalist view racial profiling as being formed by dominate groups to cause the subordinate groups to feel inferior, so they can have their own roles in society because it is how society intended it to be. Conflict perspective believe that all groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle because the dominant groups who have social, political and economical power, struggle to maintain their privileged position over the subordinate groups (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Conflict theorists also believe everyone is equal, despite his or her race, sex or employment, opposed to the functionalist theory (Ibid). They also believe racialized and ethnic inequality is caused due to economic stratification (Ibid). The dominate group determines what laws should be enforced and what penalties are to be administered. They also determine what subordinate group will be targeted, arrested and punished unfairly in order to maintain their positions in a capitalist society. The police are used as a tool by the dominate group to maintain their position in society. Racial profiling by police is only one of the methods used by police to enforce the rules of the dominate class. Symbolic interactionist perspective can be used to explain officers behaviour which is based in social psychology (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). The social dynamics involving the interaction between officer and citizen may influence officers behaviour and cause them to racially profile. The interactionist approach emphasizes how racialized socialization contributes to feelings of solidarity with ones own racialized or ethnic group and hostility towards others (Ibid) which could cause citizens to challenge officers authority if they felt their identities were being challenged, their civil liberties were being restricted, or the officer was acting in a rude behaviour. Although symbolic interactionist perspective does not directly explain why police initially stop minorities, it does explain the social interaction between the officer and citizen and how it could result in the citizen feeling of being racially profiled if the officers interaction was professional. Feminist perspective is based on critical-conflict perspective (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). A feminist view on racial profiling is about gender and race differences, and the limitations associated with traditional male-dominance in society. There is no one feminist perspective that can explain a social problem such as racial profiling because all are theories of oppression, differences, and inequality (Ibid). Social activist groups along with minority groups claims of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service exists and refer to published articles to support their claims, such as the 2002 series of newspaper articles written by the Toronto Star, and the lack of racial statistics compiled by the Toronto Police Service. In these articles, the Toronto Star articles used empirical data collected from the Toronto Police Services Criminal Information Processing System (CIPS) database. According to the newspaper articles that examined 480,000 files contained within the database, relating to arrest and traffic stops, claim Blacks arrested by Toronto Police are treated more harshly than white, and a disproportionate number of black motorists are ticketed for violations that only surface following a traffic stop. According to civil libertarians, community leaders and criminologists, the difference could suggest that police use racial profiling in deciding whom to pull over (Toronto Star Newspaper, 2009, p. A01). Social and minority groups also support their claims of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service, as the Service does not collect or release race base statistics. They argue One fears that the only reason the Police Board refuses to release this data is to ensure that the public does not get updated information on racial profiling (Toronto Police Accountability Coalition, 2008). This paper concedes that racial profiling may exist on an individual basis (micro-level) within the Toronto Police Service. This was confirmed by Chief Blair of the Toronto Police Service who was speaking a diversity conference and said: Racism is a human failing. Racial profiling can occur. Weve acknowledged that right up front (Doolittle, 2009). As a police officer, it is obvious that there are errors in the Toronto Stars conclusions. The Toronto Star compiled its data using the files contained in the CIPS database, which only contained files relating to arrest and tickets issued to persons. The problem using only this database is that it does not take into account the number of people the police actually investigate where there were no arrest or tickets issued, or the fact that the CIPS system excludes information on part 1 Provincial Offences tickets; i.e. seatbelt, speeding etc. as it only includes part 3 Provincial offences tickets (more serious offences). By only selecting the CIPS database and not the true number of persons stopped by police skewed the final results. Professor Edward B. Harvey, a PhD, from the University of Toronto confirmed this fact that the Toronto Police database, which was not designed for research purposes, contains so many flaws that its uses in research is limited (Harvey, 2003). The data-collection by the Toronto Star was also disputed by Allan Gold based on the distinction between reactive and proactive policing (2003, pp. 391-399). Gold argues reactive policing could attribute to claims of racial profiling while proactive policing will not. When it comes to the collection of data, the Toronto Start uses both styles of policing which flawed their conclusion (Ibid). It is very well known that any and every methodology in the social sciences is open to criticism and attack (May, 2001). Max Weber a pioneering sociologist and social researcher stresses the importance of proper methodology in social research in examining any social problem, and how crucial it is to understanding the problem (Alasuutari, 2010, pp. 139-155). The Toronto Stars article and how they used the data and the omission of vital data has skewed the final results. These errors have created false evidence of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service, which has been proven. The argument of race based crime statistics date back to 1929 (Johnston, 1994, p. 166). Social activist groups along with minorities groups have argued that the reason Toronto Police Service is not releasing race based crime statistics is due to the that the Service in fact racially profiling, which would be proven by the statistics (Toronto Police Accountability Coalition, 2008). In fact in 1989 the opposite argument was used by community groups when then Inspector Julian Fantino released crime based statistics, claiming them to be inherently racist calling for their abolishment (Johnston, 1994, p. 166). According to Robin S. Engel an Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati and Director of the University of Cincinnati Policing Institute, Data will never prove or disprove racially biased policing, we contend that vehicle stop data collection and analysis should never be viewed-either by police or resident stakeholders-as a pass fail test. Rather, it should be viewed as a diagnostic tool to help pinpoint the decisions, geographic areas, and procedures that should get priority attention when the agency, in concert with concerned residents, identifies its next steps for addressing the problem or perception of racial profiling (2008, pp. 1-36). Institutional racism consists of the day-to-day practices of an organization that have a harmful impact on members of a subordinate group (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011) and delivered at the macro-level. In order for the argument of systematic racial profiling by the Toronto Police Service to be true, the Service would have to have policies or procedures in place that sanctioned it. In fact, the Toronto Police Service does not sanction any form of racial profiling by its members. The Service has numerous rules and procedures that prohibit racial profiling along with a Diversity Management Unit that monitors all human rights complaints and ensures that all members provide a bias-free service to the community (2009). Members of the Toronto Police Service are also being constantly reminded their responsibility in providing a bias-free service to the community. These reminders are done through training and education, the Services Core Values and letters to the members of the Service, such as a letter written in 2003 by then Chief Juilian Fantino who wrote; we must be aware that social and institutional pressures can lead to unacceptable instances of racial bias in policing. Police officers must make their decisions to engage the public based on the actions or conduct that they observe, on actual witness information and/or on hand evidence. Police officers must have articulable cause or reasonable grounds in order to pursue legitimate law enforcement activities with a member of the public. We must not make any decision to stop, question and/or search citizens based solely on a persons race. All of us, at all times, must provide equitable and respectful service to all persons regardless of race. I believe that the best way to deal with this and all other issues is simply by always treating people, all people, professionally. Lets continue to treat all people and each other with dignity and respect. Professional conduct means that we will never go wrong or be found wanting in our dealings with all components of our diverse society (Toronto Police Service, 2003). To ensure that members of the Toronto Police Service are not racially profiling the Toronto Police Service is working in partnership with the Ontario Human Rights Commission to ensure the Services hiring practices reflect the diversity of the City of Toronto, training officers in ethics, and diversity and how to recognize racial bias policing (2009) Although the Toronto Police Service does not systematically racially profile, they do systematically criminally profile. Criminal profiling also known as Criminal Investigative Analysis (CIA) is an effective tool enabling law enforcement agencies to enforce the law more effectively (Royal Canadian Mounted Police). The origins of criminal profiling can be traced back to 1800s when it was first used in case to identify Jack to Ripper (Winerman, 2004, p. 66). The current use of criminal profiling by law enforcement was developed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), in the United States by their Behaviour Science Unit (Ibid). The uses of this technique has also with stood the threshold of law and been recognized as a valid investigative technique. Criminal profiling involves a multidisciplinary approach that examines and understands criminal behaviour using many sociological perspectives. Functionalist perspective view crime as a result of the lack moral order within a society which is necessary to hold society together (Kendall, Nygaard, Thompson, 2011). Conflict perspective suggests that disadvantage groups are more likely to become criminals than those who are privileged. It also sees higher-income citizens being able to hide their criminal acts better and punished differently then disadvantage groups, if caught. Symbolic interactionist perspective helps us understand how people learn to become criminals and how being labelled a criminals can increase the probability that the person will engage in criminal behaviour (Ibid). Each perspective traces criminal behaviour to social conditions rather than to the individuals race, sex, ethnicity or disability. Criminal profiling can be broken into two stages; the first could be described as general profiling and the second as specific profiling (Palermo, 2002, pp. 383-385). General profiling is part of an officers everyday duties and investigations of any crime, such as traffic stops, while specific profiling is more refined in the officers approach to evidence and crime scene investigations (Ibid). Criminal profiling can also take on several forms. The first form of criminal profiling can be institutional, which is where the organization develops the profile of the offender, while the second for can be formed by the individual officer. This form of criminal profiling is developed by the officer from his or her own experiences (Higgins Gabbidon, 2009, pp. 77-88). In todays policing, Toronto Police Service front-line officers incorporated the general profiling aspect of criminal profiling when performing their general duties but will on occasion incorporate specific profiling aspects when responding to a serious radio call. The officers will also use both institutional and individual forms of criminal profiling as well. A basic form of institutional criminal profiling is taught to members of the Toronto Police Service when he or she attends the Ontario Police College as a basic recruit. The recruits are provided the necessary knowledge of laws, procedures and skills that will help them perform their duties as frontline officers. With emphasis on the core function of police services found in the Ontario Police Service Act section 4(2) which focuses on Crime Prevention, Law Enforcement, Assistance to Victims of Crime, Public Order Maintenance, and Emergency Response (2009). The officers are also provided training a variety of subjects including, ethics, anti-racism and community policing (Ibid). The training does not stop when a officer leave the Ontario Police College, the officers are further trained at the Toronto Police College in the Services Rule and Procedures, Core Values and Mission Statement of the Service along with officer safety training. Officers develop individual criminal profiling skills when they start patrolling the streets of Toronto. The officer will respond to thousands of calls varying from thefts, domestics, fights, to vehicle stops. Each time the officer interacts with the individuals, he or she develops their own brand of policing and individual criminal profiling techniques. In community policing, officers work closely with problem communities, in developing strategies to help the community combat crime. Working with the community, officers receive information from residences on potential criminal activities and individuals within the community, so that they can develop strategies to reduce crime. Officers will incorporate all aspects of criminal profiling to either be reactive or proactive in an attempt to reduce criminality. Being reactive, officers focus their attention on direct information that is received from the community to reduce the current problem within the community, while proactive policing allows the officers to profile activities and individuals within the community to prevent further victimization. Officers also use criminal profiling when they perform traffic stops. The officer use individual criminal profiling when he or she selects an area to monitor the traffic flow, which is based on the officers personal experience. The officer might select an area where there is a high rate of incidences of failing to stop at a sign or a section or roadway where vehicle speed. When the officer decides to stop the vehicle for a violation of the Highway Traffic Act, he or she again criminally profiles the vehicle and occupants for officer safety reasons. The officer will conduct registration checks on the vehicle and the registered owner, all the time observing the occupants of the vehicle before stopping the vehicle, in order identify any criminal activity. This part of criminal profiling it taught to the officers by the Ontario Police College and the Toronto Police College (institutional criminal profiling) as part of the Officers Safety Section within both colleges, in order to keep the officer safe. There are those who argue that criminal profiling is not supported by scientific evidence and should be dismisses as rhetoric and never be used. This paper agrees that criminal profiling is limited in empirical data but is still a useful tool to combat crime. According to a research study which states, criminal profiling will persist as a pseudoscientific technique until such time as empirical and reproducible studies are conducted on the abilities of large groups of active profilers to predict, with more precision and greater magnitude, the characteristics of offenders (Snook, Eastwood, Gendreau, Goggin Cullen, 2007, pp. 437-453). In conclusion, it is important to rethink racial profiling through the lens of criminal profiling and to reduce race to the role that it is purportedly playing in racial profiling, namely a predictive factor; to treat race no differently than we would gender, class, age, or any other profile that works; to take the focus away from race and place it on criminal profiling more generally. Rethinking racial profiling through the lens of criminal profiling actually sheds light on police practices. The Toronto Police Service does not systematically racially profile as the media, social and minority groups would have us believe. In order for the Toronto Police Service to be blamed for systematically racially profiling, the Service would have to be a plan or procedure in place to support it. The Toronto Police Service does not support any form of racial profiling by it members Criminal profiling plays a crucial and significant role in deterring and combating criminal behaviour and activity. Criminal profiling provides a valuable tool for police in which they can assess and analyze the patterns of criminal behaviour (Turvey, 2008, pp. 1-43). The Toronto Police Service systematically criminally profiles and treats the race component of criminal profiling no differently than they would gender, class, age, or any other profile that works.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Ruined Maid and To His Coy Mistress Essay -- Love Relationships Thomas

Ruined Maid and To His Coy Mistress Both the â€Å"Ruined Maid† and â€Å"To His Coy Mistress† provide us with disturbing images / pictures of love, sex and relationships as I am about to explain. The â€Å"Ruined Maid† was written by Thomas Hardy in 1866, during the time when women didn’t have sex before marriage and they were thrown out of their village for being â€Å"ruined†. The public at that point in history had a very strict view of sex and marriage. They thought that women in particular should never have sex before marriage and they should have everything taken off them for being â€Å"ruined†. They were looked upon as a disgrace to society. The â€Å"Ruined Maid† provides us with disturbing images and pictures of love and relationships because the poem is about a woman who has become â€Å"ruined† which means that she’s had sex before marriage. She’s turned the meaning of this into a good thing while most people thought that it was a bad thing because it meant that the woman had no self-respect and that they were looked upon as prostitutes in a sense. The poem starts with Melia and a...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere Assess the Sociological Explanations for Ethnic Differences in Educational Success

There are many reasons for educational underachievement and it has been said that ethnicity is one of these key factors. It has been found that Indian and Asian pupils are of higher educational achievement than White, African-Caribbean, and Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils. One possible cause of ethnic differences in education could be at the fault of the education system.To investigate this Sewell conducted a study using semi-structured interviews and observations in an inner-city boys’ comprehensive school, his study revealed the ways in which African-Caribbean students are labelled by their teachers, peers, white students as ‘problems’ in the classroom. Sewell showed how Black boys use these negative perceptions to construct different responses to school based on their own ‘masculine’ images, many of these belonging the anti-school culture, such as conformists, innovators, rebels and retreatists, all in favour of gang culture.However some so ciologists are critical of this study in that they feel Sewell is blaming ‘black-culture’ for the educational failure as opposed to recognising racism within the education system. Another reason for ethnic differences in achievement lies in the school itself. Sociologist Connolly found that teachers are more likely to be overly critical of African-Caribbean pupil’s behaviour due to stereotypical views of their ethnic ways resulting in them being labelled as troublemakers and being in need of stricter discipline.This can therefore lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy of the student whereby they become troublesome in a ‘screw-you’ effect to their teachers. However, as criticism to this Sewell found evidence that not every pupil responded with the self-fulfilling prophecy, and in fact some African-Caribbean students adopted ‘White’ values and behaviours at the expense of losing their African-Caribbean stereotypical identities.There are clearl y definite suggestions as to why certain ethnic groups are underachieving in the education system; however they are reasons as to why some ethnic groups are performing better than others. For example, the home of a pupil is a primary agent in their socialisation and education and this therefore has the biggest impact on the pupil so when at school they will either be handicapped or at an advantage from their upbringing.For example, Modood argued that some ethnic minorities have higher levels of cultural capital, despite often being from a working-class background. Many Indians and Asians originate from working-class backgrounds even though they end up with middle class jobs. These parents therefore place particularly high values on educational success and contain the knowledge and understanding of education to motivate their children and help them to succeed.Strand also investigates ethnicity and achievement in education, he compared the progress of Indian, African-Caribbean and whi te British pupils in their secondary education. Strand found that Indian children made more positive progress than the white British students but African-Caribbean pupils fell even further behind. Strand found the Indian’s success was due to both material and cultural factors such as high aspirations and dedication to homework, low levels of truancy and exclusion and good resources at home such as computers and private tutoring.However there was no evidence that African-Caribbean parents and pupils adopted a culture that would hold them back in their educational success, they had high aspirations and a positive attitude to school. Overall his research found little, if any, difference in the cultural support for education between working-class white and African-Caribbean pupils and so, although there were valid reasons found for the Indian pupils’ success, it was difficult to explain why African-Caribbean pupils were doing less well.These are, in my opinion the most imp ortant factors affecting ethnic differences in educational achievement and although Strand’s research did not come to a clear conclusion as to why African-Caribbean pupils are underachieving it is clear to see that negative stereotypes and material/cultural deprivation are the reasons for their underachievement and the positive labelling and encouragement from parents’ cultural capital is what gives Indian and Asian children an advantage and therefore contributes to their educational success.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The World of Culinary Arts

Cooking food is commonly known as culinary art. The word culinary is related to the art of making various kinds of food. A culinarian working in restaurants is commonly known as a cook or a chef. The chef skillfully prepares food that is pleasing to the eye and the palate of the guests. They are required to have knowledge of the science of food and the understanding of diet and nutrition. They work primarily in restaurants, hotels, airlines, cruise liners, hospitals and other institutions. Kitchen conditions depend upon the demand and type of business. The art of making various cuisines can be termed as â€Å"Culinary Arts†.The history of culinary arts goes back to 1800s when the very first cooking school was started in Boston, America. Where teaching the art of cooking & preparing the food were given to students, inurn they passed on their knowledge to others. The actual revolution started later in Culinary Arts through the television where in 1946, James Beard started regula r cooking classes in the art of American Cooking. The French cooking was introduced in American homes by Julia Child, in 1960’s when through the power of the radio she entered all the kitchens nationwide.The culinary institute of America or CIA was founded and was the first of its kind in the country to hold career based cooking courses on the art of cooking. The cuisine and latest innovations worldwide are based on the ingredients available around the region. The dishes also depend upon the cultural and the socio-economic conditions of the city, region and country. Food is one thing that has always been and will continue to be a big part of our daily lives as a result of family recipes that are inherited from the ancestors.Those who are interested in cooking, go to culinary schools to learn the art and obtain their professional degree in the field of culinary arts. The beauty of this art lies in the skill of understanding various types of tastes, presentations and foodâ€⠄¢s main features. The restaurant industry is fast moving with the trend of initiating better-flavored food from local sources. Industry pioneers are progressing towards new initiatives including the composting of food waste and recycling of cooking in lieu for serving economic and innovative dishes.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Bridget Riley Biography

Bridget Riley Biography Bridget Riley began working in the Op Art movement far before it was named as an official artistic movement. Still, she is best known for her black and white works from the 1960s that helped inspire the new style of contemporary art. It is said that her art was created to make a statement about absolutes. It is coincidental that they are viewed as optical illusions. Early Life Riley was born on April 24, 1931, in London. Her father and grandfather were both printmakers, so art was in her blood. She studied at Cheltenham Ladies College and later art at Goldsmiths College and the Royal College of Art in London. Artistic Style After her early, extensive artistic training, Bridget Riley spent several years casting about for her path. While working as an art teacher, she began exploring the interplay of shape, lines, and light, boiling these elements down to black and white (initially) in order to fully understand them. In 1960, she began working in her signature style - what many refer to today as Op Art, a display of geometric patterns that tricks the eye and produces movement and color. In the decades since, she has experimented with different mediums (and color, which can be seen in works like 1990s Shadow Play), mastered the art of printmaking, moved through differently shaped themes, and introduced color to her paintings. Her meticulous, methodical discipline is phenomenal. Important Works Movement in Squares, 1961Fall, 1963Dominance Portfolio (Red, Blue and Green) (series), 1977Ra2, 1981Conversation, 1993

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Autobiography of Malcolm X essays

The Autobiography of Malcolm X essays The Autobiography of Malcolm X is a very powerful and moving book, which describes his early years and the AfricanAmerican struggle for freedom, justice and equality. Born in Omaha, Nebraska, Malcolm Little was the seventh of eleven children. At age six, Malcolms father was brutally murdered. As a result, his mother later suffered a nervous breakdown and Malcolm was sent to a detention home in Northern Michigan. After leaving school, in the eighth grade, he lived with a relative in Boston, Mass. He shined shoes, worked in a restaurant and on a railroad kitchen crew. In 1942, he moved to a section in New York called Harlem, where he lived as a hustler, cheating people to make money for himself. He also sold drugs and became a drug addict himself. After fleeing Harlem for his life, he ended up back in Boston where he started to rob houses with his friend Shorty and white girlfriend, Sophia. After being caught with possession of stolen goods Malcolm and Shorty were convicted of fourteen counts of robbery and sentenced to ten years in prison. While in prison, Malcolm broadened his horizons by teaching himself how to read and write better. Malcolm was also converted to the Islamic faith and was enlightened by the teachings of Allah and Mr. Elijah Muhammad. Black Muslims in America start the Nation of Islam, which fights for total separation from the White Devil. In being a Muslim, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to the holy city Mecca where he realizes that separation is not the way to go but unity. When he returns to the United States, he separates himself from Mr. Muhammad and the Nation of Islam and starts his own mosque called Muslim Mosque Incorporated. In doing so, he angers the Nation of Islam, who I think later kill him in cold blood in front of his wife and children. At the end of his life, Malcolm was a different man, a man who saw a larger picture where people of all race and religion cou...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Understanding and Using Loops in Delphi Programming

Understanding and Using Loops in Delphi Programming The loop is a common element in all programming languages. Delphi has three control structures that execute blocks of code repeatedly: for, repeat ... until and while ... do. The FOR loop Suppose we need to repeat an operation a fixed number of times. // show 1,2,3,4,5 message boxesvar j: integer;beginfor j : 1 to 5 dobeginShowMessage(Box: IntToStr(j)) ;end;end; The value of a control variable (j), which is really just a counter, determines how many times a for statement runs. The keyword for sets up a counter. In the preceding example, the starting value for the counter is set to 1. The ending value is set to 5.When the for statement begins running the counter variable is set to the starting value. Delphi than checks whether the value for the counter is less than the ending value. If the value is greater, nothing is done (program execution jumps to the line of code immediately following the for loop code block). If the starting value is less than the ending value, the body of the loop is executed (here: the message box is displayed). Finally, Delphi adds 1 to the counter and starts the process again. Sometimes it is necessary to count backward. The downto keyword specifies that the value of a counter should be decremented by one each time the loop executes (it is not possible to specify an increment / decrement other than one). An example of a for loop that counts backward. var j: integer;beginfor j : 5 downto 1 dobeginShowMessage(T minus IntToStr(j) seconds) ;end;ShowMessage(For sequence executed!) ;end; Note: its important that you never change the value of the control variable in the middle of the loop. Doing so will cause errors. Nested FOR loops Writing a for loop within another for loop (nesting loops) is very useful when you want to fill / display data in a table or a grid. var k,j: integer;begin//this double loop is executed 4x416 timesfor k: 1 to 4 dofor j: 4 downto 1 doShowMessage(Box: IntToStr(k) , IntToStr(j)) ;end; The rule for nesting for-next loops is simple: the inner loop (j counter) must be completed before the next statement for the outer loop is encountered (k counter). We can have triply or quadruply nested loops, or even more. Note: Generally, the begin and end keywords are not strictly required, as you can see. If begin and end are not used, the statement immediately following the for statement is considered the body of the loop. The FOR-IN loop If you have Delphi 2005 or any newer version, you can use the new for-element-in-collection style iteration over containers. The following example demonstrates iteration over string expressions: for each char in string check if the character is either a or e or i. consts About Delphi Programming;varc : char;beginfor c in s dobeginif c in [a,e,i] thenbegin// do somethingend;end;end; The WHILE and REPEAT loops Sometimes we wont know exactly how many times a loop should cycle. What if we want to repeat an operation until we reach a specific goal? The most important difference between the while-do loop and the repeat-until loop is that the code of the repeat statement is always executed at least once. The general pattern when we write a repeat (and while) type of loop in Delphi is as follows: repeatbeginstatements;end;until condition true while condition true dobeginstatements;end; Here is the code to show 5 successive message boxes using repeat-until: varj: integer;beginj:0;repeatbeginj : j 1;ShowMessage(Box:IntToStr(j)) ;end;until j 5;end; As you can see, the repeat statement evaluates a condition at the end of the loop (therefore repeat loop is executed for sure at least once). The while statement, on the other hand, evaluates a condition at the beginning of the loop. Since the test is being done at the top, we will usually need to make sure that the condition makes sense before the loop is processed, if this is not true the compiler may decide to remove the loop from the code. var j: integer;beginj:0;while j 5 dobeginj:j1;ShowMessage(Box:IntToStr(j)) ;end;end; Break and Continue The Break and Continue procedures can be used to control the flow of repetitive statements: The Break procedure causes the flow of control to exit a for, while, or repeat statement and continue at the next statement following the loop statement. Continue allows the flow of control to proceed to the next iteration of repeating operation.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Should Gays be allowed to serve in the military Research Paper

Should Gays be allowed to serve in the military - Research Paper Example The â€Å"don’t ask, don’t tell, don’t pursue policy is one the policies in the USA that cannot be overlooked in such a debate. The question therefore, is whether it is a good policy or not. It is important to look at several views whether this policy harms or boosts military readiness. The other factor is the impact of this policy on the morale of military, whether it harms or boosts troop morale and unit cohesion or not (Berlatsky, 2011). In addition, I think it is significant to look at service compatibility aspect; this tries to deduce if in any case being a gay is compatible with military service. The other factor is whether ‘the don’t ask don’t tell policy’ has improved military retention and recruitment or whether it has harmed these efforts. Furthermore, its consistency to citizen rights is a matter not worth ignoring when handling this topic. Considering whether homosexuality is moral or not and whether this should play a role in driving States policy should also take preeminence. Ultimately careful evaluation of these considerations can result to the bearing taken in analyzing whether gays should serve in the military or not. The don’t ask, don’t tell policy was adopted during President Bill Clintons’ regime in the Year 1993. It prohibits openly accepting if one is a gay and it prohibits one being asked his sexual status when being recruited in the military. In my opinion, it is not resonant for open declaration that one is a gay since such declaration automatically discharges one from his duty in the military service. The main reason cited for this move was that, homosexuality destabilizes good order and it is against the good morals of the larger American society. Again many opinions have continued to emerge in regard to this policy. Some people have argued that this policy is selective and undermines basic freedom stipulated in the Bill of rights. Their argument being that this policy locks out patriots who would like to put

Friday, October 18, 2019

Carpe Diem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Carpe Diem - Essay Example He uses rosebuds as a metaphor for youth and beauty, and unlike the other two poets, does not seem to be talking to one particular lady love, but seems to be directing the advice of 'seize the day' to all in possession of the short-lived splendors of youth and beauty. The stress is less on seduction, and more on the need to celebrate youth and make the most of it, while there is still time. On the other hand, both Andrew Marvell, in To His Coy Mistress, and Richard Wilbur, in A Late Aubade are clearly using their talents to persuade their lady loves to succumb to their baser desires. Marvell's poem starts off by leisurely, languidly enumerating all the romantic things he would do, "Had we but world enough, and time". Then he picks up speed and urgency, as he goes on to say that there is no time to waste since "Time's winged chariot (is) hurrying near". Reason enough not to dally, but to get on with life and love. As he puts it, "Now let us sport us while we may," before "your quaint honor turn to dust,/ And into ashes all my lust." The incredible beauty of his poem barely conceals his agenda, which is very clear and focused - seduction. Richard Wilbur, a contemporary poet, has a completely different approach. Having already spent time with his lady love, he is partially satiated, and seeks to seduce her into staying longer.

The Conflict between Profit-Making and Business Ethics Resulting in Essay

The Conflict between Profit-Making and Business Ethics Resulting in the Claims Made within the Article - Essay Example The report claims that by having the Olympic Branded products made within abusive sweatshops it makes a â€Å"mockery† of the claims made by London 2012 organisers that this summer’s Olympics will be the most ethical ever. 1.2- Who is the report intended for? The report is intended for the owner’s of the following six factories, PTShyang Yao Fung, Shyang Yao Fung, PT Parnarub Industry, PT Pancaprima, PT Golden Castle and PT Golden Continental. 1.3- Who asked for it? The Independent conducted the investigation. 1.4- What is the following report aiming to find out? The following report is aiming to examine the conflict between profit-making and business ethics whilst finding out if the claims made by The Independent’s investigation into the alleged sweatshops in Indonesia are making a ‘mockery’ out of the London summer Olympics and whether it is ethical. 2.0- Terms of reference: The report is intended for the owners of the Indonesian factories t o give findings and recommendations following an investigation from The Independent. The investigation was carried out because of claims from London Olympic organisers that ‘’this summer Olympics will be the most ethical ever.’’ 3.0- Procedure. ... 3.5- In total there were eleven people questioned within the article. 4.0- Findings: 4.1 –Indonesian factories have been contracted to produce Olympic branded clothing and shoes for the official sportswear partner of the London Olympics, which is the German company Adidas. These products are to be worn by athletes of Team Gb as well as games volunteers. 4.2 The German company Adidas hopes to make ?100 million pounds from its Olympic products. 4.3 An investigation carried out by The Independent has uncovered wide spread violations of workers rights in Indonesia. 4.4: From the investigation, The Independent has found out that the German company subjects its employees to long working hours, that is, they work for 65 hours which is 25 hours longer than what should be the case for a standard working week. 4.5 The employees of the German company are paid a very low pay and are mostly young females. 4.6 The German company is alleged to subject its employees to physical and verbal abu se and are punished in case they fail to achieve the production targets. 4.7 The Independent also found out that not a single factory among the nine factories of the Germany based company ensures that it pays its workers a living wage. 4.8 The report by the Independent unravelled that the Olympics Organising Committee (Locog) had adopted the base code set by the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) that a living pay should be approximately 20 percent more than the officially recognised minimum wage of a country. 4.9 The investigations also revealed that the employees in the nine factories live in deplorable conditions where they have to skip meals to save money. 4.10 The working conditions have affected the families of the workers where some are separated from

Cryptographic overhead of IPsec Protocol suit Research Paper

Cryptographic overhead of IPsec Protocol suit - Research Paper Example The reality that the Internet is deficient in security is still undeniable. So to solve this issue researchers are trying to increase the network security at each layer by designing a range of security protocols. The designed protocols include PGP, S/MIME, and SET which are specifically designed to ensure the security of the application layer. In this scenario, SSL/TLS are used on the transport layer. In this race, IPSec is one of the most important security protocol, which is designed for dealing with the network layer security, ensuring the availability of security services like that data source authentication, access control, data confidentiality and integrity and processing data packages on the IP packet layer (Zheng & Zhang, 2009; Meng, et al., 2010). This report presents a detailed analysis of IPSec and associated aspects. IPSec IPSec is a complete suite of protocols, which carry out specific tasks. As discussed above, the basic objective of IPSec is to provide a variety of sec urity facilities to traffic transmitting between a source and destination. In this scenario, a source or destination can be a host or a router. In addition, these facilities can be used for all packets sent or received, or simply to a particular kind of transmission such as FTP or telnet. Figure1 demonstrates how IPSec ensures the security of data transmission between a host and a destination (Clark, 2002): Figure 1IPSec Operation, Image Source: (Clark, 2002) In this diagram a red line is used to demonstrate that IPSec is implemented on the path between the Host B and Router 1. Basically, IPSec provides a variety of security mechanisms for securing transmissions over a network and these mechanisms can be implemented in different ways. Additionally, IPSec can perform operations on particular kind of traffic at the same time as remaining traffic is moved on a defenseless path. This process is clearly mentioned in the figure, in this figure 1 black links are used to demonstrate this ki nd of communication. A number of separate IPSec protected connections can be established between the two routers and between Host B and Router 1 (Clark, 2002). Implementation of security through IPSec In their paper, (Zheng & Zhang, 2009) provides a detailed discussion on the working of IPSec and the way it ensures the surety of transmission over a network. According to their viewpoint, IPSec implements the security in a network by maintaining the security associations (SAs). In this scenario, a security association is used as a basis to identify the security parameters that will be utilized in data transmission to make it protected, for instance IPSec security protocol, encryption algorithm, hash function and encryption key. Additionally, each security association is typically specified by an exclusive set of parameters such as destination IP address, security parameter index and security protocol. In addition, these associations are established after the negotiation between the co mmunicating hosts in the networks. IPSec is also responsible for maintaining a Security Policy Database (SPD). In fact, a network interface that is established using the IPSec, possesses a pair of Security Policy Database and Security Association Database, which help in processing incoming and outgoing IP packets. One entry of Security Association Database is equal to a security association, on the other hand, Security Policy Database entry refers to a security policy. In this scenario,

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Exam 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Exam 2 - Essay Example Restriction on occupying white land was another driver to the revolution agenda. The fact that the colonialists restricted the activities that could be carried out by the people, it was definite that settlement was also unbalanced (Tidal and Shi 77). There were areas restricted to entry and occupation this had to be resisted as it made others feel that they were inferior and sidelined thus triggering resistance that lead to reforms. The weight of taxation fell on the back of the people. This, however, never performed its task as expected by the people. Thus, the re developed zero tolerance to the high and unfair system of taxation. The government had to model an acceptable taxation system. The end result in this case was reforms that were to benefit the people and relieve them of the unfair governance as had been manifested before. Debts to the merchants of Europe prompted loyalty prevalence among the two countries. The resultant event that followed was revolution so as to improve terms of relation. There had to be a good government to ensure proper use and settling of the debt. Thus, the government had to set up reforms in the manner that it was called for. Development of national consciousness throughout due to the advancement in knowledge also leads to the revolution. The people became more aware and concerned about their rights. As a result, they pressed on for issues that they felt were not in order to the positive. This became so massive that reforms were inevitable. The whole system had to do things the right way so that the people could see the benefits associated with every action. The fact that the people became more watchful was a sign of enlighten that played a big role in revolution. Conflict of class also came in as other people were sidelined. The rich felt that this was not the right way to go, they had to find a way of sharing the powers as such they pushed for the reforms. Revolutionary conspiracy took center

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Sexual Exploitation of Women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Sexual Exploitation of Women - Essay Example Moreover, the nuisance in the society can be regulated but not at the expense of the safety, health and lives of individuals. Sale of sex for cash is not hampered by the constitution. However, the harm on the laws should not exceed the objectives of the federal government adopting it. When the court advised the government through the parliament to revise the laws on sex trade, the federal government argued that sex workers chose to affirmatively embrace risks that emanate from the dangerous trade (John, 2014). One of the dangers is violence on women by their clients. On the screens of reality, most prostitutes who resort to the trade are not usually driven by their own accord but other factors. Therefore, this paper seeks to elaborate conceptions about prostitutions by incorporating feminism (Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2015).Prostitution has become a social challenge due to the dynamics of the society despite its negative implication especially on women. Some of the prohibited activities are: prostitutes are not allowed to offer their services outdoors or even outside their homes; living on avails of prostitution aimed at another individual benefiting from another’s prostitution; and offering of services in public. The prohibition of not offering services outdoors is aimed at deterring the community from disruption and that concerning living on avails of sex trade is aimed at the eradication of pimps. On the other hand, prohibiting prostitutes from offering services publicly is channeled towards eradicating sex work out of the public view hence minimizing nuisance. However, there are several feminists with varied opinions on the issue in discussion (John, 2014). Other feminists perceive prostitution to be bad and retrogressive towards the steps taken towards female equality while some have a contrary opinion. They vindicate their views that prostitution is illegal

Exam 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Exam 2 - Essay Example Restriction on occupying white land was another driver to the revolution agenda. The fact that the colonialists restricted the activities that could be carried out by the people, it was definite that settlement was also unbalanced (Tidal and Shi 77). There were areas restricted to entry and occupation this had to be resisted as it made others feel that they were inferior and sidelined thus triggering resistance that lead to reforms. The weight of taxation fell on the back of the people. This, however, never performed its task as expected by the people. Thus, the re developed zero tolerance to the high and unfair system of taxation. The government had to model an acceptable taxation system. The end result in this case was reforms that were to benefit the people and relieve them of the unfair governance as had been manifested before. Debts to the merchants of Europe prompted loyalty prevalence among the two countries. The resultant event that followed was revolution so as to improve terms of relation. There had to be a good government to ensure proper use and settling of the debt. Thus, the government had to set up reforms in the manner that it was called for. Development of national consciousness throughout due to the advancement in knowledge also leads to the revolution. The people became more aware and concerned about their rights. As a result, they pressed on for issues that they felt were not in order to the positive. This became so massive that reforms were inevitable. The whole system had to do things the right way so that the people could see the benefits associated with every action. The fact that the people became more watchful was a sign of enlighten that played a big role in revolution. Conflict of class also came in as other people were sidelined. The rich felt that this was not the right way to go, they had to find a way of sharing the powers as such they pushed for the reforms. Revolutionary conspiracy took center

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Introduction to Sociology Essay Example for Free

Introduction to Sociology Essay 1. The Philippines is one of the third world countries in the world. This means that the country belongs to some of the poorest countries compared to the United States and the United Kingdom. People who live in third world countries are not necessarily all poor. Some of them are also rich and have their own businesses. These people can eat more than three times a day, send their children to private schools, and enjoy the luxuries that their money can buy. However, majority of the people in third world countries are poor. Some are homeless. Many have no source of income and therefore cannot provide for their families. It is not surprising that many people choose to go to first world countries like the United States to work for better opportunities. For Vicky, there is no doubt that the decision to find work in a foreign country was hard. She has her own family with a husband and two children to take care of. She left her family to earn money for the family. Although she did have a job in the Philippines, this was not enough to take care of the familys financial needs. She did not want to be separated from her family but she needed to travel because she knew that if she stayed in the Philippines, her family will suffer. Vicky is not alone in this kind of situation. The Philippines is one of the most known countries who have the greatest number of overseas workers because of the situation in their country. They try to find work not only in the United States but also in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the Middle East. Financial need is the number one reason for them to work outside the country. 2. Because Vicky is not a native of the United States, it is most likely that she will experience some difficulties while working here. First, she might encounter discrimination due to her color and race. Although the United States is a very diverse country, discrimination still exists in its society at some point. Vicky might be looked down upon because of her color and her nationality. She might be discriminated because she is not able to communicate in English as fluently as the natives can. The United States government tries hard to make sure that discrimination does not exist in its society today. However, there are still a few who think that they are better just because of their color and race. Vicky might feel discouraged when she experiences discrimination from the natives of this country. She might also have an impression that Americans are not hospitable and welcoming and that working here is not worth it after all. Secondly, Vicky might encounter problems with her immigran t status. There are many employers who do not like to hire people who are not natives of the country because they do not trust them and believe of what they can do as workers. She might also have problems when her visa expires. The United States embassy is quite strict in allowing people in their country because they want to avoid terrorist attacks and other unwanted situations that foreigners can bring in the country. Another difficulty that Vicky might experience is the competition for the employment opportunities. Aside from the competition with the locals, Vicky might also have to compete with the opposite sex for the job that she wants. Some employers prefer to hire males because they believe that males are stronger and much more capable of the work needed to get done. This lessens Vickys chances of choosing a job that suits her the most and the job that she thinks would reward her the most in terms of salary and income. These are only some of the setbacks that Vicky might encounter while working in the United States. When one looks at the situation, it can be seen that Vicky and all other overseas workers are the ones who suffer the most. They enter a foreign country without any familiar face. They have to adapt to certain rules and norms of the countrys society. They have to learn how to get along with strangers just to keep their jobs. They have to endure problems like discrimination and competition. Aside from these things, they suffer from being away from their home and families. They get homesick but do not mind this just to be able to send money to their homeland. They take care of other peoples families and children but are not able to take care of their own children. All these they have to endure just for their families have a better life back in their homeland. 3. People from third world countries will not be able to think of leaving their families to go to another country if there are no available jobs in these foreign countries. Â  In economic terms, there would be no supply of workers if there is no demand for them. Vicky would not have thought of going here if there were no couples who need her services. Americans are very success-driven people, which is why they work hard day and night even if this means having less time for their families. Work is very important for them. At times, one job is not even enough and they search for second jobs to earn for the family. This requires them to look for people who can take care of their children while they are at work. While they certainly can avail the services of day care centers, many parents do not want to leave their children in these centers because of overcrowding and fear of their children contracting diseases from other children. It is also better to hire a private nanny who can focus on their children on a constant basis. Day care centers have limited staff and there are times when the staff cannot attend to the needs of each child because there are just too much of them. Vicky, as a private nanny, can stay at home with them and do other household chores when the child does not need taking care of. Having one private nanny can also mean that the nanny can focus on the childs growth and development at all times. The nanny can act as a second parent to the child when the parents are not at home. Her educational background and previous work experience might also contribute to her employment. Parents would want to hire people who know how to handle their kids and the household when they are gone. They want someone who can be trusted. Vickys experience as a school teacher can help her get employed because this means that she knows how to handle children. In addition, the fact that she is a mother of two children herself means that she has enough experience in taking care of children and recognizing their n eeds and wants. If these dual-career Beverly Hills couples choose to hire Vicky, they would certainly be lucky and benefit from it because of her qualifications. It is not everyday that school teachers from other countries apply for a housekeeper or a nanny. This would also be beneficial for the parents because hiring Vicky would cost less than enrolling their children in a day care center. 4. Transnational migrants are those people who belong to two or more societies at the same time. Although Vicky does not really own any property while in the United States, she can be considered as a transnational migrant because she belongs to two different societies at the same time. She is still a Filipino citizen and will most likely take vacations in the Philippines if her employers allowed it. She still practices the different cultures and traditions of the Filipino culture while in and outside of her home country. This may not be obvious but she nevertheless still does it. At the same time, living and working in the United States requires her to adapt to the customs of the country to fit in. She would learn the language, the government, and the people of the United States. She is employed here and is receiving monetary income, which makes her a part of the society. Even if she does not really want to, she still has to do it because this will make it easier for her to live in a foreign country.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Doxorubicin for Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment

Doxorubicin for Drug Delivery in Cancer Treatment Jobin Baby Title – Nanoparticles (Doxorubicin) for drug delivery in cancer treatment Layman-friendly summary – My aim for this research is to eliminate all traditional treatment used for cancer treatment and introduce nanoparticles as new carrier for drug delivery for cancer treatments. Cancer treatments such as administering toxic drug through injecting/orally doesn’t specifically target cancerous cells but causing the toxic drug go through the bloodstream. This causes cell toxicity by diffusing toxic drug from the bloodstream to the cells. Nanoparticles coated with drugs that can be specifically targeted on to the desired cancer cell. Nanoparticles are small structures that is usually range from sizes between diameter 1-100 nm. Scientific summary – Nanoparticle enter the cell by receptor mediated endocytosis. Nanoparticle is engulfed/wrapped around by membrane a process called endocytosis. The interaction of the membrane and the nanocarriers allows for penetration of the cell by endocytosis. At time nanoparticle slip or penetrate in to the cell membrane and it adheres in to the cell. The nanoparticle containing the drug responds directly to the cell containing cancer and terminates it. Introduction – Cancer is the most dangerous disease. To treat cancerous cell toxic drugs are injected in to the blood stream to kill the cancer cell. But toxic drugs diffuse in to the cell from the bloodstream causing other cells to be toxic. So to minimize diseases/toxicity to other cell or cell membrane nanoparticles should be introduce. Nanoparticles attack on specific cells that causes cancer. Nanoparticles are used to reduce risk of toxicity and side effects of the drug. Doxorubicin nanoparticles binds to specific site of cancer cell and initiate/penetrates inside the cancer cell and breaks open to kill the cancerous cell. Nanoparticles have a relatively large surface which is able to bind, adsorb and carry other compounds such as drugs, probes and proteins (Wim H De Jong, 2008). Cancer is demonstrated as uncontrollable cell growth. Cancer starts when damaged or unused cells start too dived uncontrollably it grows in numbers or doubles so it’s impossible to stop when it spreads around t he body. To stop uncontrollable division of cancerous cell we should react faster. Administering using injection or orally the time taken to react to this cancerous cells is too late so, using nanoparticles its time efficient and its reacts directly with the cancerous cell. A drug is transported to the place of action, hence, its influence on vital tissues and undesirable side effects can be minimized (Wilczewska AZ, 2012). Nanoparticles are used for drug targeting. So, when reaching to the intended diseased/cancerous site in the body the drug carried in the nanoparticle needs to be released. So for drug delivery biodegradable nanoparticle formulations is needed as its intention is to release the drug and react to the cancerous cell. Nanoparticles and their payloads have also been favourably delivered into tumors by taking advantage of the pathophysiological conditions, such as the enhanced permeability and retention effect and the spatial variations in the pHà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¦value (Dr. Tianmeng Sun, 2014). Various nanostructures like polymers, silicon and magnetic nanoparticles have been tested as carriers in drug delivery systems. Like polymers it uses this system where drug is coated on to the polymer and is administered form the mouth to react to the tumor cell. Polymer is a biodegradable substance. So it biodegrades as time goes on. It doesn’t stay in the body so it causes less damage to the cell cause cell toxicity is reduces. It is the same for nanoparticles it provides its function and then degrades causing no further toxicity to the cells. NPs can be used to safely and reliably deliver hydrophilic drugs, hydrophobic drugs, proteins, vaccines, and other biological macromolecules in the body. They can be specifically designed for targeted drug delivery to the brain, lungs, tumor cells and spleen (Singh, 2011). Methodology – Ten experimental rats containing cancerous cells kept under controlled condition Experimented on different rats with different stages of cancer The experiment was led under cleanroom because no contaminants enter and contradict the results. Nanoparticle (DOX) containing drug is placed on five rats Other five rats is undergone chemotherapy and its administered by injecting Every 24hrs results were recorded for 3 months Cell toxicity will be recorded by taking sample of blood from the rat every 48hrs The test subjects will be monitored for unusual behaviour for any side effects suffering from the nanoparticle injected in to the body or from the chemotherapy 4 hrs per chemotherapy was led. The treatment was led every three weeks for 3 months on rats. The lab and the result is checked by three competent authority After three months the rats under controlled environment will be checked for possibility of cancerous cell. If the results turned out as plausible, clinical trials is likely to happen. Grant chart – Expected outcomes – The outcome delivering nanoparticle containing the drug. A tumor marker is substance found in the body tissues that can be elevated only in cancer cells. Oncomarkers is the signature of a cancer cell and modern nanoparticles developed to conjugate to various molecular markers. Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most efficient anti-cancer drug. That’s why nanoscale capsule can deliver DOX only inside cancer cells using oncomarker signatures. It consists of a DNA-or origami shell covered by immune factors with molecular binding sites on its surface (Franà §ois Perreault, 2015). Nanoparticle delivery starts form bloodstream. DOX nanoparticles penetrate inside the cancer cell due to cancer markers on its surface. When nanocapsule conjugated with several markers its DNA-origami shell opens releasing DOX inside the cell. DOX successfully delivered. The cancer cell dies due to DOX direct delivery. So it’s expected using DOX direct delivery cancerous cell from the rats is eliminates/ter minated. DOX delivery will be expected to be faster and time efficient whereas chemotherapy will be slower. DOX delivery is expected to terminate cancerous cells but using chemotherapy it is expected that cancer cells is likely to be back or not all cancer cells are dead Budget – Staff salary 3 staff â‚ ¬21 per hour, 40 hrs in 2 weeks in a month so 6 weeks (240hr) in 3 months Per person â‚ ¬5040 3 person total â‚ ¬15,120 Clean room Clean room â‚ ¬18000 for 3months from February to March Total= â‚ ¬18000 Equipment Budget Malvern instrument â‚ ¬540 Nanosight analyser- â‚ ¬2750 Laboratories instrument â‚ ¬600 Total= â‚ ¬3890 Test Rats 10 Test rats â‚ ¬1000 each Total= â‚ ¬10000 Travel Budget â‚ ¬2000 travel expense for conference meeting in Boston Massachusetts Total â‚ ¬2000 Total budget needed = â‚ ¬49,010 Plans for dissemination – Once this research is completed this will be placed on scientific journal, newspapers, article and social media websites. This research will be approved to do clinical trials on real patients suffering from cancer. Scientific posters will be placed outside science conventions in Ireland and UK. A conference will be held on 27th September for science breakthrough and I will be presenting about my research and how it benefits in the future. Findings of my research will be presented on graphs and on excel to allow people to visualize my research. To spread news around hospitals, research will be published on local newspapers. Bibliography Dr. Tianmeng Sun, D. Y. (2014). Engineered Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 12320–12364. Franà §ois Perreault, A. F. (2015). Environmental applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. Chemical Society Reviews. Singh, A. M. (2011). Biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent vehicle for site directed in-vivo delivery of drugs and vaccines. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 9-55. Wilczewska AZ, N. K. (2012). Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems. 1020-1037. Wim H De Jong, P. J. (2008). Drug delivery and nanoparticles: Applications and hazards. Int J Nanomedicine, 133–149.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Bhp Revitalizes Its Global Management :: essays research papers fc

BHP Revitalizes Its Global Management Summary of the article by David Forman "BHP REVITALISES ITS GLOBAL MANAGEMENT," Business Review Weekly, April 17 1995, page 24-26. BHP is setting up the required management to handle a rapid global expansion. They have done this by appointing a network of regional corporate representatives and a corporate general manager, international. Representing BHP across the world, these managers will facilitate new developments, and assist global expansion. This overseas focus of expansion requires new systems and processes, to take on projects in different countries around the world. BHP has taken advice from other companies, that have expanded outside their home countries, also background advice from consulting firms. BHP have taken this advice, and created a management model to suit their operations. By providing regional representatives to deal with governments, bureaucracies and coordinators of cross divisional activities, this model expects BHP to be able to find expansion opportunities. Particularly where opportunities exist that involve more than one divisional group. An example of this is BHP Power, which develops power stations using the most appropriate energy source for the circumstances. Power is an independent group, drawing on the skills of the Mining and Petroleum divisions where necessary. The company is looking at other possible new businesses, that are natural developments of the company's existing businesses, in the same way Power has evolved from Petroleum and Mining. One of these is Manufacturing, using the skills developed in the Steel division. In 15 years BHP has gone from being a domestic steel producer with small petroleum and mining operations, to having a significant international presence in the steel, oil and mining industries. (Forman, D. 1995, pp. 24-26) MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES After a six month review of their business position into the next century BHP has developed a strategic plan.(Forman, D. 1995) The strategic management process uses nine steps to create a strategic plan. 1: Identify the organisations current mission, objectives and strategies. BHP operates steel, mining and petroleum businesses. 2: Analyse the environment. They have recognised that many areas that they operate in are suitable for expanding existing operations. 3: Identify opportunities and threats. The opportunities are to develop businesses that are not yet operating in a particular area. The threats are competitors who move in quicker, and a lack of understanding of the specific environment. 4: Analyse the organisation's resources. BHP have recognised that they have many skilled people within the steel, mining and petroleum operating divisions. 5: Identifying strengths and weaknesses. The strength of BHP is in its traditional steel, mining and petroleum operations. The weaknesses are the lack of a co-operative link between the divisions. 6: Reassessing the organisation's mission and objectives.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Education Essay -- essays research papers

Education There are many definitions of education, many people have different options of education and how it should be taught. I however will explore three definitions. William James’ definition who was a philosopher and psychologist will be explained. I will use an online dictionary. Lastly, Webster’s Universal English Dictionary definition for education will be explored. William James states that, â€Å"Education, in short, cannot be better described than by calling it the organization of acquired habits of conduct and tendencies to behavior.† When you are educated, it seems that your conduct and tenancies toward behavior would be different from that of an uneducated person. An educated person would associate the knowledge they have retained in a different manner than an uneducated one. I a...

Friday, October 11, 2019

The incidences of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence

The incidences of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence seem to be higher than anticipated.   In alcohol dependence the problems seem to be more severe than alcohol abuse.   Family history does seem to play an important role in the initiation and progression of alcohol use, along with external factors.   In Western Countries, the incidences of alcohol consumption are higher due to the cultural implications.In these cultures, alcohol use in fact begins during the teenage period. The incidences of alcohol related problems have reduced over the past few decades in the US, due to increased awareness levels.   The incidences of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependences are higher in males than females, although females develop it more easily than males.   Alcohol consumption was higher in the Europeans than the American and other communities.During the management of alcohol-related disorders, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence has to be differentiated properly using the DSM-IV-TR c riteria.   Treatment should be initiated after determining the needs of the individual.   It would be logical to provide counseling sessions and motivating the patient to become alcohol-free.   Counseling and short-term administration of medications, play a very important role during treatment.Hospitalization may be required for a few days to help the individual refrain from the habit.   The individual may develop certain symptoms while abstaining from alcohol initially which slowly reduce with time.   The risk of relapses following treatment is very high.   Hence, it would be advisable to keep a constant check on the individual.20 % of the individuals admitted in mental hospitals have suffered either alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence.   It affects individuals from all socio-economic backgrounds.The prevalence of alcohol dependence in the US Colleges was 6%, and alcohol abuse was 20%.   At least 15000 students die a year due to alcohol disorders.   Alcohol depend ence and alcohol abuse puts the individual at a very high risk to develop depressive disorders, panic disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, mania, schizophrenia, etc (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).Alcohol dependence is a condition in which the repeated presence of three out of 7 impairments, alcohol can have over life and normal functioning, during a 12-month period.   The impairments of defects in functioning include tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, interference with normal functioning at school, workplace, home or in social setting, physical and psychological symptoms, etc (According to the DSM-IV-TR).There is a difference in withdrawal developing separately and that developing in association with dependence.   Withdrawal symptoms that develop separately can follow a severe course.   When withdrawal is present in relation to depression, a milder course is followed.   Individuals without alcohol dependence may not be considered as alcohol abusers (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).In alcohol abuse, the individual may not be dependent on alcohol but develops a constant problem related to alcohol use during a 12-month period (such as legal, social, work-based and family problems, and using alcohol in dangerous environments).   At least one or two of the 4 areas are present in abuse (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).The DSM-IV-TR code for alcohol abuse is 305.00, and that of alcohol dependence is 303.90.The background characteristics of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence remain the same that is a family history of alcohol misuse or dependence.   It may be as high as 80 %.   The ICD has offered an alternate classification of alcohol dependence.   It suggests 3 out of 6 areas, in difference to the DSM-IV-TR classification of 3 out of 7 areas (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).The prevalence of drinking is relatively high in America, and about 90% of the population drink.   They usually start during early or mid-teens.   About 80% of the people drink when they complete high school.   About 60% go to the extent of intoxicating themselves with alcohol.   On an average, two out of three men drink in the US (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).Individuals who are educated and have a higher socio-economic background drink more frequently.   Amongst religious groups, Jewish minorities consume the most, but do not develop alcohol dependence often.Conservative groups drink less compared to liberal groups.   American-Indians drink more quantities of alcohol compared to other groups.   Adults on an average consume about 2.2 gallons of absolute alcohol per annum.   At the time of American Revolution, this figure was as high as 5 gallons.   During the 1970’s, the figures significantly increased as trends were high and awareness was low.A study conducted to determine the long-term effects in about 500 middle-aged males demonstrated that one-fourth to one-third had alcohol-related problems.   One-third drove under the influence of alcohol, and about one-fi fth did not attend to school due to frequent hangovers or disciplinary problems.   However, studies have shown that people tend to learn something out of the less severe alcohol-related problems.Thus, the alcohol-related problems have reduced in the 30’s, 40’s and 50’s age groups.   The life time risk for alcohol dependence is 10 to 15% in males and about 3 to 5 % in females.   Alcohol dependence usually develops in the age group of 20 to 40 years.Thy somehow tend to hold on to their jobs, family relations and social functioning.   If alcohol dependence in teenagers is reported, the incidence of associated antisocial personality disorders is high.   Sometimes alcohol dependence can begin late in life, and in such circumstances is associated with reduced social problems (Schuckit, M. A., 2005).Europeans consume the most amount of alcohol a year, especially the northern European countries.   About 90% of the teenagers consume alcohol during their schoo l days.   This rate was much higher compared to the US.   Most Europeans drink by the age of 12 or 13 years.   In Denmark, the incidences of alcohol consumption were particularly high in female teenagers.The incidences of Binge drinking (drinking large amount of alcohol within a short period of time to the extent of intoxication) were high in the UK, Denmark and Ireland.   The main reason for this was merry-making.   The Irish tend to spend the most on drinking, with Denmark a distant second.   Relatively, lower amounts of money were spent on alcohol by people belonging to Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland (Finfacts Ireland, 2007).Throughout history, alcohol has played a role in the economic, social, medicinal, cultural, religious and spiritual sectors of life.   The nomadic Rechabites did not drink wine because they felt that it was associated with bad agricultural habits.   Prophet Mohammed did not allow his devotees to consume alcohol.Ancient Egypt considered al cohol a source of energy and nutrients.   In fact, their alcohol contained several nutritional supplements that helped to treat nutritional deficiency disorders.   Alcohol has been utilized by a medicine by several cultures.   Several studies have demonstrated it effect in lowering the incidences of coronary heart disorders, cancer and bone-degenerative disorders such as osteoporosis.   It had also been during the early days of medicine to control pain during surgeries.   Even today, several alternative forms of medicine use alcohol as a solvent in their medicinal preparations, and also as a painkiller.   Alcohol is often utilized as a social lubricant, and can improve the taste and appetite for food.   Many communities consider that alcohol should not be a problem because it has been misused only by a small number of people.   It was beneficial to greater numbers of the society (Hanson, D. J., 2005).

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Factors Affecting Fermentation of Glucose by Yeast

Fermentation is anaerobic respiration whereby food is altered into more simple compounds and energy in the form of chemicals is produced, an example being adenosine triphosphate (biology-online. org/dictionary/Fermentation). All this occurs with the lack of atmospheric oxygen. At the end of the day alcohol and carbon dioxide are the end products when yeast is used in the fermentation procedure. But end products like acetic acid or lactic acid can also be gained depending on the circumstances. The salinity, air conditions, temperature, pH of the system, the enzyme systems of microorganisms, and the type of sugars being fermented can show a variety in the type of end products produced. In this study the tube with the highest amount of chlorine is added, an increase in the rate of fermentation should be observed. Methods and Materials: 100ml of the stock solution of 10% glucose was placed into four separate beakers. Each beaker was labeled â€Å"1 (control),† â€Å"2 (5 drops),† â€Å"3 (10 drops),† and â€Å"4 (15 drops)†. Five drops of 6% sodium hypochlorite was added to beaker #2, 10 drops to beaker #3, and 15 drops to beaker #4. The contents of the yeast suspension were then stirred thoroughly to be sure the yeast cells were suspended and not settled at the bottom and to each solution 50ml of the yeast suspension was added. The contents of each beaker were stirred with a glass stirring rod to mix the solutions thoroughly. Each of the four fermentation tube bowls were filled with one of the solutions and the tubes were tilted so that the vertical arm was full, but the bowl was nearly empty. Each fermentation tube was labeled in order to indicate its contents. The tubes were placed in a warm place (in an incubator or near a heat lamp). Every 10 minutes for 90 minutes a measurement was made and the amount of gas produced in each of the four fermentation tubes was recorded and graphed. Results: Figure 1 As shown in figure 1, this study revealed that when chlorine was added there was a decline in the fermentation tubes excluding group â€Å"two,† the five drop tube. Therefore this observation concluded that when there’s a large amount of chlorine the fermentation rate slowed down. But when there was a little amount of chlorine there was increase in the rate of fermentation. An average of about 15 additional minutes were spared in order to equal the amount of fermentation in the control tube and five drop tube when large amounts of chlorine were evident. Discussion: All four beakers were evaporated by the 60 minute mark. The solution with five drops was the first to completely evaporate, following with the control group, the 10 drops and finally the 15 drops. No real conclusions could be drawn from this study because of the order in which the evaporation was completed. This lab also generates questions that could not have been asked before the lab. Why do some fermentation tubes have all their solution evaporate and not others? What would have happened if more yeast solution were added to the fermentation tubes? With the information discovered, experimenters know some of the different factors affecting fermentation of glucose by yeast. This information will help alcoholic fermentation in the wine and beer industries.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Medical Classification and Medical Billing Process Essay

The ten steps in the medical billing process are divided into three sections and they are: visit, claim, and post claim. The visit has four steps and they are: preregister patients, establish financial responsibility for the visit, check in patients, and check out patients. The claim has three steps and they are: review coding compliance, check billing compliance, prepare and transmit claims. The last section is the post claim which has the last three steps which are: monitor payer adjudication, generate patient statements, and follow up on patient payments and handle collections. HIPAA, ICD, CPT, and HCPCS, all have an important role in the medical billing process. HIPAA protect any information in which individuals can identify the patient, their health and history, such as their name, social security number, contact and billing information, and insurance. When first visiting the medical facility a patient must receive a notice of privacy, this will explain how to exercise his or her rights under HIPAA. It will protect patient records from being disclosed without his or her consent. In the medical billing process, HIPAA influences preregistering because the staff must make sure the patient information is not overheard by others in the waiting room. HIPAA also influences the establishing’s financial responsibility because the patient provides the medical facility with his or hers personal information as well as insurances. International Classification of Disease (ICD) is diagnosis codes used at check out time to identify the patient’s primary illness. In order for the visit to be bill the physician must put down a medical code to describe the patient medical diagnoses and procedures. When the physician performs a treatment or test a procedure code is assigned. These codes can be selected from the CPT or Current Procedural Terminology. Any service in which is not included in the CPT can be found in the HCPCS or the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. HIPAA has made HCPCS codes mandatory for billing and coding. HCPCS codes are for patients in Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance plans. Once the services is provided and the ICD, CPT, and HCPCS codes are assigned then the medical facility can submit the claim to the insurance provider. By not putting the right codes down it can cause the claim to be denied. The medical coder will then have to resubmit the claim so the bill can be process and paid.

Tuesday, October 8, 2019

Making Sense of American Popular Songs Research Paper

Making Sense of American Popular Songs - Research Paper Example The American Popular Ballad of the Golden Era, 1924-1950. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. In this work, much emphasis has been put on specific individuals that perform and work on popular music. In addition, the work has focused on a specific eras in which popular music were at its best in America. The book reveals what propelled people to start singing and performing popular music. These factors taken into consideration, the work is good enough to address the issues of American identity through popular music. Fuld, James J. The Book of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular and Folk. Foreward by William Lichtenwanger. New York: Crown Publishers: 1966. This book looks at a wide range of music in America and their artists. The important information given about such music and their artists is imperative in the tracing of American identity through music. Among the cultures explored in this work are classic, popular and folk. As such, I found this book imperative in the writ ing of this paper. Grove Dictionary of American Music. Restricted database available online at through some schools and colleges. This source has a lot of information on the artists of popular music from the composers of songs to the performers. The information included is the bibliographic works for the artists. This makes the book significant in researching on the American identity through analysis of bibliographies of the composer and performers of pop music. Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1983. Of significance about Charles’ work is that it concentrates on major works. Through the information found in this book, it is easy to establish the wave movement of Americans to the initiation of popular music. As... The paper tells that popular music in America took on a transformation in the second half of the 19th century to emphasize commercial expansion. This overlapped into the twentieth century and traces can still be seen in today’s popular music. As a result, the expansion of the music industry meant that more songs had to be composed, staged, produced and listened to in the entire country of the United States of America. In the first place, popular music was restricted to ethnic minorities or immigrant people to express their dissatisfaction in the manner in which the government was running social and economic matters in the country. However, commercialization expanded the market for such songs as well as thematic implications attached to the songs. On the other hand, Jewish artists incorporated segments from their tradition into the American music. This is well illustrated when Sophie Tucker performed her pop song â€Å"My Yiddishe Momme† which was staged in 12925. The so ng was performed in both Yiddish and English. Additionally, the Afro-American values resulted into a sequence of characteristic song style. This made most of the African American performers to be enthusiastic and confident with the themes central to pop culture. Nevertheless, there was a change in issues that were held true to popular music by 1950. These changes were in the contradictions over the period in which such songs were performed. In the first place, some songs remained stable from one period to another. The rise of other genres in music performed and composed in America like rock and roll, blues and soul music has an overriding impact on popular music.

Monday, October 7, 2019

International Business (Globalization) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Business (Globalization) - Essay Example International businesses are at present largely restricted to their where they originated from, only if we consider their overall business operations and activity; they stay heavily 'nationally rooted' and carry on to be multinational, to a certain extent than translational ,organizations . (Palmisano 2006) While full globalization in this organizational sense may not have occurred on a large scale, these large multinational corporations still have considerable economic and cultural power. Multinationals can impact upon communities in very diverse places. First, they look to establish or contract operations (production, service and sales) in countries and regions where they can exploit cheaper labour and resources. While this can mean additional wealth flowing into those communities, this form of 'globalization' entails significant inequalities. It can moreover, it may lead to outsized scale job loss in especially for those whose industries were in the past located. The wages paid in the recent settings can be nominal, and worker's privileges and conditions pitiable. For instance, a 1998 study of exceptional economic zones in China showed that manufacturers for organizations such as Ralph Lauren, Adidas and Nike were the ones paying low wages, to the extent of 13 cents per hour Second, multinationals continuously look new or else under-exploited markets. They look to increase sales - often by trying to create new needs among different target groups. One example here has been the activities of tobacco companies in southern countries. Another has been the development of the markets predominantly populated by children and young people. There is increasing evidence that this is having a deep effect; that our view of childhood (especially in northern and 'developed' countries) is increasingly the product of 'consumer-media' culture. Furthermore, that culture is underpinned in the sweated work of the 'mothered' children of the so-called 'Third World'. With the aid of various media, the commodity form has increasingly become central to the life of the young of the West, constructing their identities and relationships, their emotional and social worlds. Adults and schools have been negatively positioned in this matrix to the extent that youthful power and pleasure are constructed as that which happens elsewhere - away from adults and schools and mainly with the aid of commodities. Of course such commodification of everyday life is hardly new. Writers like Erich Fromm were commenting on the phenomenon in the early 1950s. However, there has been a significant acceleration and intensification (and globalization) with the rise of the brand (see below) and a heavier focus on seeking to condition children and young people to construct their identities around brands. Third, and linked to the above, we have seen the erosion of pubic space by corporate activities. Significant areas of leisure, for example, have moved from more associational forms like clubs to privatized, commercialized activity. For example, charts this with

Sunday, October 6, 2019

Political science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Political science - Essay Example The U.S. victory can be attributed to their decisive plans for naval control on the western pacific wing during the World War II. This operation was carried out with little knowledge of modern operational ideas. It is for this reason that both sides experienced tactical shortcomings that halted the entire mission and objective of the operation. This paper shall analyze the battle for Leyte Gulf with its main focus on the principles and art of military operation by the U.S. and Japan. In this regard the paper will focus on command decisions by the U.S. and Japanese naval commanders with a view of coming up with modern principles that can be applied in future operations. Principles of operation The success of any warfare mission depends solely on the ability of the commander to identify the aim, decipher the strategic factors of his operation, select and organize his forces and design a plan to achieve the objective of the operation. Normally, the commander’s role involves integ ration and coordination of an operation in a way as to inflict shock, disrupt and defeat the enemy. This is possible when the entire operation injects force on a totally different measure. In so doing, the commander ought to choose the correct course of action as dictated by ground factors by selecting factors pertinent to operations guided by the philosophy of operational art. The planning, synchronization and the conduct of operational functions have some impacts on the belligerents. This paper intends to discuss the aftereffects of the operational functions of the military in relation to planning, synchronization and execution. To achieve this aim, the impacts of the operational functions to belligerents in the Leyte Gulf operation will be discussed. The Leyte Gulf operation, also termed as the battles for Leyte Gulf, was a battle that occurred during the Second World War, from the 23rd to the 25th of October 1944. It aimed at the liberation of Philippines. Allied forces of the U .S.A and Australia and the Imperial Japanese Navy were the protagonists in the battle (Adamsky, 2010). The battle started with the invasion of Leyte’s island by the ground forces of the allied forces led by general Douglas Mac Arthur. The Japanese fleet took up the battle to defeat the invasion, but got defeated by the U.S. seventh fleet led by Vice Admiral Thomas Kinkaid and the fleet led by Admiral William. The battle got divided into four engagements which were the battle of Samar, the battle of cape Engano, the battle of Surigao strait, and the battle of the Sibuyan Sea. Preparation and Planning The main objective of the operation was to capture Leyte Gulf. The U.S. naval forces approached the attack using two axes, one under the leadership of Admiral Nimitz. This was designed to advance its operations towards a westerly strategic axis with the sole purpose of capturing the Marianas, Palau, Gilbert and Marshall Islands. The second set of forces, the southwest pacific forc es, under the command of General Douglas followed a northwesterly tactical axis all the way through Guinea and Morotai. The two axes were expected to intersect at Leyte. According to the leading commanders, the intersection would act as a stepping stone for effective takeover of Philippines. This was a strategic move in the heart of the operation as this was designed to cut off communication of Japanese sea lines disadvantaging their retaliation. In