Thursday, August 8, 2019

Culture and international marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Culture and international marketing - Essay Example Thus the key terms used within this essay will be defined, with others being defined as they are introduced in the discussion. Marketing has several definitions. Kotler and Armstrong (2010) provide a very simple definition of â€Å"managing profitable customer relationships† (p.28) and a more detailed one of â€Å"the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return† (p.29). Both put the focus on relationships rather than transactions, and consider the relationship as providing value for both companies and customers. Global marketing is defined as â€Å"the commitment of organisational resources to pursuing global market opportunities and responding to environmental threats in the global marketplace† (Keegan and Green, 2011, p.587). If marketing has several definitions, then so does culture, which has different meanings depending on the context within which the term is used. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002) lists seven meanings for the word culture (p.575), two of which are relevant here. The first is culture as â€Å"a particular form, stage, or type of intellectual development or civilisation in a society; a society or group characterised by its distinctive customs, achievements, products, outlook, etc.†, the second as â€Å"the distinctive customs, achievements, products, outlook, etc., of a society or group; the way of life of a society or group†. When discussing culture within the context of marketing, the obvious one requiring consideration is national culture, especially as organisations now market their products internationally, even if only by having on online presence. However, other cultural implications for marketing arise from corporate cultures, sub-cultures and social representations of culture. Usunier and Lee (2009, p.8) identify ten sources of culture that affect individuals: Figure 1: Sources of Cultur e (Source: Usunier and Lee 2009 p.8) Mullins (2010, p.829) defines organisational culture as â€Å"the collection of traditional values, policies, beliefs and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organisation†. Johnson et al (2008, p.195) identify the idea of subcultures within organisations, that exist within the overall organisational culture, but have specific characteristics of their own. These can be based on functional, geographical or business structures, for example, where different approaches can be seen based on the discipline or location of the office or department. On this basis, the marketing department of an organisation will not only exhibit the organisational culture, but also the marketing â€Å"department† sub-culture and the marketing â€Å"profession† subculture. Thus there are three organisational cultures affecting the department that deals with global marketing. The primary focus of this analys is is the impact of national culture, however, consideration will also be given to the impact of organisational culture where that is relevant. National Cultures and Marketing One of the challenges for marketers when dealing with global marketing issues is that culture cannot be easily seen or identified. Children are brought up within the national culture, and absorb the national values without conscious awareness – they simply learn from, and imitate, their parents (Keegan and Green, 2011, p.141). any

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